Mapping of Mangrove Ecosystem In Segara Anakan Lagoon using Normalized Different Vegetation Index and Dominant Vegetation Index

Endang Hilmi, Lilik Kartika Sari, Arif Mahdiana, Teuku Junaidi, Muslih Muslih, Sesilia Rani Samudra, Norman Arie Prayogo, Muhamad Baedowi, Tri Nur Cahyo, Rifky Raihady Danu Putra, Fitra Amalia Sari

Abstract


Mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon (SAL) Cilacap as a typical and specific semiclosed estuary. SAL  is dominated by many species like as Rhizophora spp., Sonneratia spp., Bruguiera spp., Avicennia spp., and other species. The normalized different vegetation index (NDVI) and dominant vegetation index (DVI) are a suitable method to support the mapping analysis of mangrove structure and mangrove density.  This research aimed to develop mapping of mangrove species distribution, density and dominated species using NDVI and DVI.  The method of this research used NDVI analysis using satellite imagery 2017-2020 and domination vegetation with line and quadrat transect method. The results showed that  West Segara Anakan had mangrove dense (25 %), moderate density (25 %), rare density (50%) and East Segara Anakan had mangrove dense (43,86 %), moderate density (47.99 %), rare density (8,24 %).  Based on domination species showed that East Segara Anakan was dominated by Rhizophora stylosa (233-1633 trees ha-1), Rhizophora apiculata (100-1067 trees ha-1), Nypa frutican (50-2775 trees ha-1), whereas West Segara Anakan was dominated by Nypa frutican (565-2333 trees ha-1), Avicennia marina (198-933 trees ha-1), Sonneratia caseolaris  (132-700 trees ha-1) and Avicennia alba (107-1000 trees ha-1).

 

Keywords : Mangrove density, mapping analysis, Segara Anakan Lagoon, NDVI and NDWI

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adame, M. F., Neil, D., Wright, S. F., Lovelock, C. E. 2010. Sedimentation within and among mangrove forests along a gradient of geomorphological settings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 86(1), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.10.013

Al-Nasrawi, A. K. M., Jones, B. G., Hamylton, S. M. 2016. GIS-based modelling of vulnerability of coastal wetland ecosystems to environmental changes: Comerong Island, southeastern Australia. Journal of Coastal Research, 75(sp1), 33–37. https://doi.org/10.2112/si75-007.1

Alam, M. I., Debrot, A. O., Ahmed, M. U., Ahsan, M. N., Verdegem, M. C. J. 2021. Synergistic effects of mangrove leaf litter and supplemental feed on water quality, growth and survival of shrimp (Penaeus monodon, Fabricius, 1798) post larvae. Aquaculture, 545(May), 737237. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2021.737237

Ameen, F., Moslem, M., Hadi, S., Al-Sabri, A. E. 2016. Biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from Red Sea Coast of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 23(2), 211–218. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.04.005

Andini, S., Prasetyo, W., Sukmono, A. 2018. Analisis Sebaran Vegetasi Dengan Citra Satelit Sentinel Menggunakan Metode NDVI Dan Segmentasi (Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Demak). Jurnal Geodesi, 7(1), 17–19.

Ardli, E., Wolff, M. 2008. Quantifying Habitat and Resource Use Changes in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (Cilacap, Indonesia) over the Past 25 Years (1978-2004). Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5(4), 59–67.

Azman, M. S., Sharma, S., Shaharudin, M. A. M., Hamzah, M. L., Adibah, S. N., Zakaria, R. M., MacKenzie, R. A. 2021. Stand structure, biomass and dynamics of naturally regenerated and restored mangroves in Malaysia. Forest Ecology and Management, 482, 118852. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2020.118852

Bathmann, J., Peters, R., Reef, R., Berger, U., Walther, M., Lovelock, C. E. 2021. Modelling mangrove forest structure and species composition over tidal inundation gradients: The feedback between plant water use and porewater salinity in an arid mangrove ecosystem: The feedback between plant water use and porewater salinity in an arid . Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 308–309(June), 108547. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108547

Bullock, E. L., Fagherazzi, S., Nardin, W., Vo-Luong, P., Nguyen, P., Woodcock, C. E. 2017. Temporal patterns in species zonation in a mangrove forest in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using a time series of Landsat imagery. Continental Shelf Research, 147(September 2016), 144–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2017.07.007

Cahyo, T. N. 2012. Hidrodinamika Dan Sebaran Materi Padatan Tersuspensi Di Perairan Pelawangan Barat, Segara Anakan Cilacap (Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor Bogor (ed.)). Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor Bogor.

Cooray, P. L. I. G. M., Jayawardana, D. T., Gunathilake, B. M., Pupulewatte, P. G. H. 2021. Characteristics of tropical mangrove soils and relationships with forest structural attributes in the northern coast of Sri Lanka. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 44, 101741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2021.101741

Dangan-Galon, F., Dolorosa, R. G., Sespeñe, J. S., Mendoza, N. I. 2016. Diversity and structural complexity of mangrove forest along Puerto Princesa Bay, Palawan Island, Philippines. Journal of Marine and Island Cultures, 5(2), 118–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imic.2016.09.001

Datta, D., Deb, S. 2017. Forest structure and soil properties of mangrove ecosystems under different management scenarios: Experiences from the intensely humanized landscape of Indian Sunderbans. Ocean and Coastal Management, 140, 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2017.02.022

Dencer-Brown, A. M., Alfaro, A. C., Bourgeois, C., Sharma, S., Milne, S. 2020. The secret lives of mangroves: Exploring New Zealand’s urban mangroves with integrated biodiversity assessments. Ocean & Coastal Management, 191, 105185. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.Ocecoaman.2020.105185

Domínguez-domínguez, M., Zavala-cruz, J., Rincón-ramírez, J. A., Martínez-zurimendi, P. 2019. Management Strategies for the Conservation , Restoration and Utilization of Mangroves in Southeastern Mexico. Wetlands. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s13157-019-01136-z

Drusch, M., Carlier, S., Colin, O., Fernandez, V., Gascon, F., Hoersch, B., Isola, C., Laberinti, P., Martimort, P. 2012. Sentinel-2: ESA’s Optical HighResolution Mission for GMES Operational Services. Remote Sensing of Environment, 120, 25–36.

Eslami-Andargoli, L., Dale, P., Sipe, N., Chaseling, J. 2009. Mangrove expansion and rainfall patterns in Moreton Bay, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 85(2), 292–298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.08.011

Faizal, A., Amran, M. A. 2005. Model Transformasi Indeks Vegetasi yang Efektif untuk Prediksi Kerapatan Mangrove Rhizophora Mucronata. Prosiding PIT MAPIN XIV, 11 (2) : 14-15.

Ferreira, T. O., Vidal-Torrado, P., Otero, X. L., Macías, F. 2007. Are mangrove forest substrates sediments or soils? A case study in southeastern Brazil. Catena, 70(1), 79–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2006.07.006

Fu, H., Wang, W., Ma, W., Wang, M. 2018. Differential in surface elevation change across mangrove forests in the intertidal zone. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 207, 203–208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2018.03.025

Giri, C., Long, J., Abbas, S., Murali, R. M., Qamer, F. M., Pengra, B., Thau, D. 2015. Distribution and dynamics of mangrove forests of South Asia. Journal of Environmental Management, 148, 101–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.01.020

Gizachew, B., Solberg, S., Næsset, E., Gobakken, T., Bollandsås, O. M., Breidenbach, J., Zahabu, E., Mauya, E. W. 2016. Mapping and estimating the total living biomass and carbon in low-biomass woodlands using Landsat 8 CDR data. Carbon Balance and Management, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-016-0055-8

Hartoyo, A. P. ., Sunkar, A., Ramadani, R., Faluthi, S., Hidayati, S. 2021. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analysis for vegetation cover in Leuser Ecosystem area, Sumatra, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers, 22(3), 1160–1171. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220311

Hidayati, N. V., Hilmi, E., Haris, A., Effendi, H., Guiliano, M., Doumenq, P., Syakti, A. D. 2011. Fluorene removal by biosurfactants producing Bacillus megaterium. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 2(4), 415–422.

Hidayati, N. V., Siregar, A. S., Sari, L. K., Putra, G. L., Hartono, Nugraha, I. P., Syakti, A. D. 2014. Pendugaan Tingkat Kontaminasi Logam Berat Pb , Cd Dan Cr Pada. Omni-Akuatika, XIII(19), 60–70.

Hilmi, E. 2018. Mangrove landscaping using the modulus of elasticity and rupture properties to reduce coastal disaster risk. Ocean and Coastal Management, 165(July), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.08.002

Hilmi, E., Amron, A., Christianto, D. 2022. The potential of high tidal flooding disaster in North Jakarta using mapping and mangrove relationship approach. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 989(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/989/1/012001

Hilmi, E., Amron, A., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Siregar, A. S. 2021a. The Mangrove Landscape and Zonation following Soil Properties and Water Inundation Distribution in Segara Anakan Cilacap. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika (Journal of Tropical Forest Management), 27(3), 152–164. https://doi.org/10.7226/jtfm.27.3.152

Hilmi, E., Amron, A., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Siregar, A. S. 2021b. The Mangrove Landscape and Zonation following Soil Properties and Water Inundation Distribution in Segara Anakan Cilacap. Jurnal Manajemen Hutan Tropika, 27(3), 152–164.

Hilmi, E., Kusmana, C., Suhendang, E., Iskandar, I. 2017. Correlation Analysis Between Seawater Intrusion and Mangrove Greenbelt. Indonesian Journal of Forestry Research, 4(2), 151–168. https://doi.org/10.20886/ijfr.2017.4.2.151-168

Hilmi, E., Pareng, R., Vikaliana, R., Kusmana, C., Iskandar, I., Sari, L. K., Setijanto. 2017. The carbon conservation of mangrove ecosystem applied REDD program. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 16, 152–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2017.08.005

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Amron, A. 2019a. Distribusi Sebaran Mangrove Dan Faktor Lingkungan Pada Ekosistem Mangrove Segara Anakan Cilacap. Prosiding Seminar Nasional ”Pengembangan Sumber Daya Perdesaan Dan Kearifan Lokal Berkelanjutan IX” 19-20 November 2019, 23–33. https://doi.org/ISBN : 978-602-1643-63-1

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Amron, A. 2019b. Distribusi Sebaran Mangrove Dan Faktor Lingkungan Pada Ekosistem Mangrove Segara Anakan Cilacap. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Dan Call for Papers ”Pengembangan Sumber Daya Perdesaan Dan Kearifan Lokal Berkelanjutan IX”, 2(November), 23–33. https://doi.org/http://jurnal.lppm.unsoed.ac.id/ojs/index.php/Prosiding/issue/view/52

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Amron, A., Cahyo, T. N., Siregar, A. S. 2021. Mangrove cluster as adaptation pattern of mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 746(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/746/1/012022

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Amron, A., Siregar, A. S. 2021. The Sedimentation Impact for the Lagoon and Mangrove Stabilization. E3S Web of Conferences, 324, 02001. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202132402001

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Kusmana, C., Suhendang, E. 2019. Carbon sequestration of MangroveEcosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon, Indonesia. Biotropia, 26(3), 181–190.

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Mahdiana, A., Soedibya, P. H. T., Sudiana, E. 2022. Survival and growth rates of mangroves planted in vertical and horizontal aquaponic systems in North Jakarta, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 23(2), 686–693. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d230213

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Muslih, M., Mahdiana, A., Samudra, S. R. 2021. The affinity of mangrove species using association and cluster index in north coast of jakarta and segara anakan of cilacap, indonesia. Biodiversitas, 22(7), 2907–2918. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220743

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Setijanto. 2019. The mangrove landscaping based on Water Quality: (Case Study in Segara Anakan Lagoon and Meranti Island). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 255(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/255/1/012028

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Siregar, A. S., Sulistyo, I., Mahdiana, A., Junaidi, T., Muslih, M., Pertiwi, R. P. C., Samudra, S. R., Prayogo, N. A. 2021. Tannins in mangrove plants in segara anakan lagoon, central java, indonesia. Biodiversitas, 22(8), 3508–3516. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d220850

Hilmi, E., Siregar, A. S., Febryanni, L., Novaliani, R., Amir, S. A., Syakti, A. D. 2015. Struktur Komunitas, Zonasi Dan Keanekaragaman Hayati Vegetasi Mangrove Di Segara Anakan Cilacap. Omni-Akuatika, 11(2), 20–32. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2015.11.2.36

Hilmi, E., Siregar, A. S., Syakti, A. D. 2017. Lead (Pb) distribution on soil, water and mangrove vegetation matrices in Eastern Part of Segara Anakan Lagoon, Cilacap. Omni-Akuatika, 13(2), 25–38. http://ojs.omniakuatika.net/index.php/joa/article/download/83/129

Ismail, Sulistiono, Hariyadi, S., Madduppa, H. 2018. Condition and mangrove density in Segara Anakan, Cilacap Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux, 11(4), 1055–1068.

Jhonnerie, R., Siregar, V. P., Nababan, B., Prasetyo, L. B., Wouthuyzen, S. 2015. Random Forest Classification for Mangrove Land Cover Mapping Using Landsat 5 TM and Alos Palsar Imageries. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 24, 215–221. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.03.028

Kantharajan, G., Pandey, P. K., Krishnan, P., Ragavan, P., Jeevamani, J. J. J., Purvaja, R., Ramesh, R. 2018. Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra, India. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 19, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2018.02.011

Khadim, F. K., Su, H., Xu, L., Tian, J. 2019. Soil salinity mapping in Everglades National Park using remote sensing techniques and vegetation salt tolerance. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 110, 31–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pce.2019.01.004

Kumbier, K., Hughes, M. G., Rogers, K., Woodroffe, C. D. 2021. Inundation characteristics of mangrove and saltmarsh in micro-tidal estuaries. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 261(April), 107553. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2021.107553

Kusmana, C., Wilarso, S., Hilwan, I., Pamoengkas, P., Wibowo, C., Tiryana, T., Triswanto, A., Yunasfi, Y., Hamzah. 2005. Teknik Rehabilitasi. Fakultas Kehutanan, Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Lee, T. ., Yeh, H. 2009. Applying Remote Sensing Techniques to Monitor Shifting Wetland Vegetation: A Case Study of Danshui River Estuary Mangrove Communities, Taiwan. Ecological Engineering, 35(4), 487–496.

Leng, B., Cao, K. F. 2020. The sap flow of six tree species and stand water use of a mangrove forest in Hainan, China. Global Ecology and Conservation, 24, e01233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01233

Li, R., Chai, M., Guo, M., Qiu, G. Y. 2016. Sediment accumulation and mercury (Hg) flux in Avicennia marina forest of Deep Bay, China. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 177, 41–46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2016.05.005

Liu, L., Wang, H. jun, Yue, Q. 2020. China’s coastal wetlands: Ecological challenges, restoration, and management suggestions. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 37, 101337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2020.101337

Markle, C. E., Chow-Fraser, P. 2016. An integrative approach to regional mapping of suitable habitat for the Blanding’s turtle (Emydoidea blandingii) on islands in Georgian Bay, Lake Huron. Global Ecology and Conservation, 6, 219–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2016.03.006

Meneses-Tovar, C. L. 2011. NDVI as indicator of degradation. Unasylva, 62(2).

Njana, M. A. 2020. Structure, growth, and sustainability of mangrove forests of mainland Tanzania. In Global Ecology and Conservation (Vol. 24, p. e01394). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01394

Nur, S. H., Hilmi, E. 2021. The correlation between mangrove ecosystem with shoreline change in Indramayu coast. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 819(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/819/1/012015

Owuor, M. A., Mulwa, R., Otieno, P., Icely, J., Newton, A. 2019. Valuing mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem services: A deliberative choice experiment in Mida Creek, Kenya. Ecosystem Services, 40(September), 101040. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2019.101040

Pham, L. T. H., Vo, T. Q., Dang, T. D., Nguyen, U. T. N. 2019. Monitoring mangrove association changes in the Can Gio biosphere reserve and implications for management. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and Environment, 13, 298–305. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsase.2018.11.009

Prastyo, Y., Batu, D. T. . L., Sulistiono, S. 2017. Heavy Metal Contain Cu and Cd on the Mullet in the estuary of Donan River, Cilacap, Central Java. Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, 20(1), 18. https://doi.org/10.17844/jphpi.v20i1.16393

Rougier, C., Pourriot, R., Lam-Hoai, T., Guiral, D. 2005. Ecological patterns of the rotifer communities in the Kaw River estuary (French Guiana). Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 63(1–2), 83–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2004.08.023

Salampessy, M. L., Febryano, I. G., Martin, E., Siahaya, M. E., Papilaya, R. 2015. Cultural Capital of the Communities in the Mangrove Conservation in the Coastal areas of Ambon Dalam Bay, Moluccas, Indonesia. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23(Ictcred 2014), 222–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.01.034

Saleh, M. A. 2007. Assessment of mangrove vegetation on Abu Minqar Island of the Red Sea. Journal of Arid Environments, 68(2), 331–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.05.016

Santos, L. C. M., Rollo, M. M., Costa, T. M., Pinheiro, M. A. A., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Bitencourt, M. D. 2016. Spatial Analysis of a Coastal Area for Conservation and Fishery of Mangrove Edible Crab (Ucides cordatus). Journal of Coastal Research, 75(sp1), 685–689. https://doi.org/10.2112/si75-137.1

Sari, L. K., Adrianto, L., Soewardi, K., Atmadipoera, A. S., Hilmi, E. 2016. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon). AIP Conference Proceedings, 1730. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4947417

Sari, S. P., Rosalina, D. 2016. Mapping and Monitoring of Mangrove Density Changes on tin Mining Area. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 33, 436–442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.094

Silva, C. A., Hudak, A. T., Klauberg, C., Vierling, L. A., Gonzalez-Benecke, C., de Padua Chaves Carvalho, S., Rodriguez, L. C. E., Cardil, A. 2017. Combined effect of pulse density and grid cell size on predicting and mapping aboveground carbon in fast-growing Eucalyptus forest plantation using airborne LiDAR data. Carbon Balance and Management, 12(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13021-017-0081-1

Suhartono, E., Purwanto, P., Suripin, S. 2015. Seawater Intrusion Modeling on Groundwater Confined Aquifer in Semarang. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 23(Ictcred 2014), 110–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2015.01.017

Suhendra, Amron, A., Hilmi, E. 2018. The pattern of coastline change based on the characteristics of sediment and coastal slope in Pangenan coast of Cirebon, West Java. E3S Web of Conferences, 47. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20184706001

Suwargana, N. 2008. Analisis Perubahan Hutan Mangrove Menggunakan Data Penginderaan Jauh di Pantai Bahagia, Muara Gembong, Bekasi. Jurnal Penginderaan Jauh Dan Pengolahan Citra Digital, 5(1), 1–7.

Syakti, A. D., Ahmed, M. M., Hidayati, N. V, Hilmi, E., Sulystyo, I., Piram, A., Doumenq, P. 2013. Screening of Emerging Pollutants in the Mangrove of Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia. IERI Procedia, 5, 216–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ieri.2013.11.095

Syakti, A. D., Hidayati, N. V., Hilmi, E., Piram, A., Doumenq, P. 2013. Source apportionment of sedimentary hydrocarbons in the Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74(1), 141–148.

Taufik, A., Ahmad, S. S. ., Ahmad, A. 2017. Classification of landsat 8 satellite data using NDVI thresholds. Journal of Telecommunication Electronic and Computer Engineering, 8(4).

Umroh, Adi, W., Sari, S. P. 2016. Detection of Mangrove Distribution in Pongok Island. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 33, 253–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2016.03.076

Win, S., Towprayoon, S., Chidthaisong, A. 2019. Adaptation of mangrove trees to different salinity areas in the Ayeyarwaddy Delta Coastal Zone, Myanmar. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 228(November 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2019.106389

Xiao, K., Li, H., Shananan, M., Zhang, X., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, H. 2019. Coastal water quality assessment and groundwater transport in a subtropical mangrove swamp in Daya Bay, China. Science of the Total Environment, 646, 1419–1432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.394

Xiong, Y., Liao, B., Proffitt, E., Guan, W., Sun, Y., Wang, F., Liu, X. 2018. Soil carbon storage in mangroves is primarily controlled by soil properties: A study at Dongzhai Bay, China. Science of the Total Environment, 619–620, 1226–1235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.187

Yan, L., Guizhu, C. 2007. Physiological adaptability of three mangrove species to salt stress. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(6), 2208–2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60052-3

Yang, Q., Tam, N. F. Y., Wong, Y. S., Luan, T. G., Su, W. S., Lan, C. Y., Shin, P. K. S., Cheung, S. G. 2008. Potential use of mangroves as constructed wetland for municipal sewage treatment in Futian, Shenzhen, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 57(6–12), 735–743. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.01.037

Youcef, B., Amira, A. B. 2017. Transport of dissolved and suspended solids from three coastal rivers (North Central Algeria). AACL Bioflux, 10(6), 1404–1412.

Zhang, Z., Fang, Z., Li, J., Sui, T., Lin, L., Xu, X. 2019. Copper, zinc, manganese, cadmium and chromium in crabs from the mangrove wetlands in Qi’ao Island, South China: Levels, bioaccumulation and dietary exposure. Watershed Ecology and the Environment, 1, 26–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsee.2019.09.001

Zhao, H., Cui, B., Zhang, H., Fan, X., Zhang, Z., Lei, X. 2010. A landscape approach for wetland change detection (1979-2009) in the Pearl River Estuary. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 2(5), 1265–1278. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2010.10.137




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2022.18.2.926

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.