Empang Parit as Silvofishery Model to Support Conserving Mangrove and Increasing Economic Benefit of Social Community

Endang Hilmi, Setiyo Nugroho, Eming Sudiana

Abstract


Mangrove, estuary and lagoon ecosystem can be used as the aquatic organism habitat. These ecosystems also have good suitability to support activity of silvofishery system.  Empang parit as a model of silvofishery using  the integrating between the conservation activity of mangrove and aquatic ecosystem with increasing of benefit income for  fisherman. This research aimed to analyze the model and pattern of empang parit, environment factor of empang parit and benefit cost analysis of empang parit. The research used vegetation analysis, water quality analysis, cash flow analysis, satellite image analysis, and geographical information analysis.  The research explained  that empang parit  required water  temperatur between 29 – 32.6oC, water brightnes between 30 – 60 cm, water salinity between 15 -32 ppt, pH between 7 – 81 and dissolve oxygen between 3.9 – 8.3 mg/L.The empang parit also need  Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Heritiera littoralis and Excoecaria agallocha, Rhizophora mucronata and  Rhizophora apiculate to cover empang parit system.  And empang parit gave postive economic value based on value of  NPV between 2.754.703–3.871.542 IDR, IRR between 21–48 and  R/C between 2.26–2.32.

Keywords :      Empang parit;  silvofishery system;  economic valuation;  water quality;  mangrove coverage

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


Abubakar. 2008. Efesiensi Pengelolaan Kawasan Tambak Udang dan Dampaknya terhadap Aspek Ekonomi Sosial dan Ekologi di Wilayah Pesisir Kabupaten Dompu NTB. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor.

Adame, M. F., Neil, D., Wright, S. F., Lovelock, C. E. 2010. Sedimentation within and among mangrove forests along a gradient of geomorphological settings. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 86(1), 21–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.10.013

Andarani, T., Hastuti, E. ., Budihastuti, R. 2016. Perubahan Kualitas Air dan Hubungannya dengan Pertumbuhan Semai Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. Berdasarkan Waktu Pengamatan yang Berbeda pada Saluran Tambak Wanamina. Jurnal Biologi., 5(1), 72–81.

Ardli, E. ., Wolff, M. 2008. Quantifying Habitat and Resource Use Changes in the Segara Anakan Lagoon (Cilacap, Indonesia) over the Past 25 Years (1978-2004). Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5(4), 59–67.

Badola, R., Hussain, S . 2005). Valuing ecosystem functions : an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem , India. Environmental Conservation, 32(1), 85–92. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892905001967

Bao, H., Wu, Y., Unger, DDu, J., Zhang, L. ., Herbeck, J. 2013. Impact of the Conversion of Mangroves into Aquaculture Ponds on the Sedimentary Organic Matter Composition in a Tidal Flat Estuary (Hainan Island, China). Cont. Shelf Res., 57, 82–91.

Bengen, D. G., Dutton, I. M. 2004. Interaction: mangroves, fisheries andforestry management in Indonesia. In Northcote. T. G.dan Hartman (Ed), Worldwide Watershed Interaction and Management. pp. 632-653.). Blackwell Science. Oxford. UK.

Bosire, J. O., Dahdouh-Guebas, F., Walton, M., Crona, B. I., Lewis, R. R., Field, C., Kairo, J. G., Koedam, N. 2008. Functionality of restored mangroves: A review. Aquatic Botany, 89(2), 251–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2008.03.010

Budihastuti, R., Anggoro, S., Saputra, S . 2012. The application of silvofishery on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Milkfish (Chanos chanos) fattening within mangrove ecosystem of the northern coastal area of Semarang City. Journal of Coastal Development., 16(1), 89 – 93.

Cahyanto, T., Kuraesin, R. 2013. Struktur Vegetasi Mangrove Di Pantai Muara Marunda Kota Administrasi Jakarta Utara Provonsi Dki Jakarta. Jurnal Warta Rimba, 3 (2)(Desember 2015), 148–154.

Cahyo, T. N. 2012. Hidrodinamika Dan Sebaran Materi Padatan Tersuspensi Di Perairan Pelawangan Barat, Segara Anakan Cilacap (Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor Bogor (ed.)). Sekolah Pascasarjana Institut Pertanian Bogor Bogor.

Dijk, J. van, Broersma, L., Mehnen, N. 2016. Options for socioeconomic developments in ICZM for the tri-national Wadden area. Ocean and Coastal Management, 119, 76–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.10.004

Duncan, C., Primavera, J. H., Pettorelli, N., Thompson, J. R., Loma, R. J. A., Koldewey, H. J. 2016. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 109(2), 772–782. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2016.05.049

Ellison, A. M. 2008. Managing mangroves with benthic biodiversity in mind: Moving beyond roving banditry. Journal of Sea Research, 59(1–2), 2–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seares.2007.05.003

Fairuz-fozi, N., Satyanarayana, B., Ashikin, N., Zauki, M., Muslim, A. M., Husain, M., Ibrahim, S., Raveen, B. 2018. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda ( Latreille , 1802 ) population status and spawning behaviour at Pendas coast , Peninsular. Global Ecology and Conservation, 15, e00422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2018.e00422

Fernandes, S. O., Dutta, P., Gonsalves, M. J., Bonin, P. C., LokaBharathi, P. A. 2016. Denitrification activity in mangrove sediments varies with associated vegetation. Ecological Engineering, 95(3), 671–681. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.06.102

Fitzgerald, W. 1997. Silvofishery an Environmentally Sensitive Integrated Mangrove Forest and Aquaculture System. Journal Aquaculture, 2(3), 9–17.

Glass, J. R., Kruse, G. H., Miller, S. A. 2015. Socioeconomic considerations of the commercial weathervane scallop fishery off Alaska using SWOT analysis. Ocean and Coastal Management, 105, 154–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2015.01.005

Hai, T. N., Yakupitiyage, A. 2005. The effects of the decomposition of mangrove leaf litter on water quality, growth and survival of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon Fabricius, 1798). Aquaculture, 250(3–4), 700–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.04.068

Henmi, Y., Fuchimoto, D., Kasahara, Y., Shimanaga, M. 2017. Community structures of halophytic plants, gastropods and brachyurans in salt marshes in Ariake and Yatsushiro seas of Japan. Plankton and Benthos Research, 12(4), 224–237. https://doi.org/10.3800/pbr.12.224

Hidayati, N. V., Hilmi, E., Haris, A., Effendi, H., Guiliano, M., Doumenq, P., Syakti, A. D. 2011. Fluorene removal by biosurfactants producing Bacillus megaterium. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 2(4), 415–422. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-011-9085-3

Hilmi, E. 2018. Mangrove landscaping using the modulus of elasticity and rupture properties to reduce coastal disaster risk. Ocean and Coastal Management, 165(July), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2018.08.002

Hilmi, E., Kusmana, C., Suhendang, E., Iskandar. 2019. the Carbon Conservation of Mangrove Ecosystem in Indonesia. Biotropia, 26(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2019.26.3.1099

Hilmi, E., Pareng, R., Vikaliana, R., Kusmana, C., Iskandar, Sari, L. K., Setijanto. 2017. The carbon conservation of mangrove ecosystem applied REDD program. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 16, 152–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2017.08.005

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Amron. 2020. Distribusi Sebaran Mangrove Dan Faktor Lingkungan Pada Ekosistem Mangrove Segara Anakan Cilacap. Prosiding Seminar Nasional â€Pengembangan Sumber Daya Perdesaan Dan Kearifan Lokal Berkelanjutan IX†19-20 November 2019.

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Cahyo, T. N., Kusmana, C., Suhendang, E. 2019. carbon sequestration of mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan Lagoon Indonesia. BIOTROPIA : The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Biology, 26(3), 181–190. https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2019.26.3.1099

Hilmi, E., Sari, L. K., Setijanto. 2019. The mangrove landscaping based on Water Quality: (Case Study in Segara Anakan Lagoon and Meranti Island). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 255(1). https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/255/1/012028

Hilmi, E., Siregar, A. S., Febryanni, L. 2015. Struktur Komunitas, Zonasi Dan Keanekaragaman Hayati Vegetasi Mangrove Di Segara Anakan Cilacap. Omni-Akuatika, 11(2), 20–32. https://doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2015.11.2.36

Hilmi, E., Siregar, A. S., Syakti, A. D. 2017. Lead (Pb) distribution on soil, water and mangrove vegetation matrices in Eastern Part of Segara Anakan Lagoon, Cilacap. Omni-Akuatika, 13(2), 25–38. http://ojs.omniakuatika.net/index.php/joa/article/download/83/129

Holtermann, P., Burchard, H., Jennerjahn, T. 2009. Hydrodynamics of the Segara Anakan lagoon. Reg Environ Change, 9(2), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-008-0075-3

Hoppe-Speer, S. C. L., Adams, J. B., Rajkaran, A., Bailey, D. 2011. The response of the red mangrove Rhizophora mucronata Lam. to salinity and inundation in South Africa. Aquatic Botany, 95(2), 71–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquabot.2011.03.006

Huang, L., Tan, Y., Song, X., Huang, X., Wang, H., Zhang, S., Dong, J., Chen, R. 2003. The status of the ecological environment and a proposed protection strategy in Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, China. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 47(1–6), 180–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0025-326X(03)00070-5

Irwansyah, E. 2010. A Spasial Perubahan Penggunaan Tanah di Sekitar Laguna Segara Anakan Kabupaten Cilacap-Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Globe, 12(1), 21–27.

Kantharajan, G., Pandey, P. K., Krishnan, P., Ragavan, P., Jeevamani, J. J. J., Purvaja, R., Ramesh, R. 2018. Vegetative structure and species composition of mangroves along the Mumbai coast, Maharashtra, India. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 19, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2018.02.011

Kanwilyanti, S., Suryanto, A., Supriharyono. 2013. Kelimpahan Larva Udang Di Sekitar Perairan Pt. Kayu Lapis Indonesia, Kaliwungu, Kendal. Diponegoro Journal Of Maquares Management Of Aquatic Resources, 2(51), 71–80.

KEPMENLH no 201. 2004. Kriteria Baku dan Pedoman Penentuan Kerusakan Mangrove. In KepmenLH.

Kordi, K. M. G. ., Tancung, A. B. T. 2007. . Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Dalam Budidaya Perairan. Rineka Cipta.

Koswara, S. D., Ardli, E. R., Yani, E. 2017. The Monitoring Of Mangrove Vegetation Community Structure In Segara Anakan Cilacap For The Period Of 2009 And 2015. SCRIPTA BIOLOGICA, 4, 113–118.

Kuntiyo. 2004. Pedoman Budidaya Kepiting Bakau (Scylla serrata). Balai Budidaya Air Payau.

Kusmana, C. 1997. Metode Vegetasi Survey. IPB Press. Bogor.

Kusmana, C., Puradyatmika, P., Husin, Y. ., Shea, G., Martindale, D. 2000. Mangrove litter fall studi at the Ajkwa Estuary Irian Jaya. Indonesian Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 9(3), 39–47.

Li, Y., Waite, A. M., Gal, G., Hipsey, M. R. 2012. Procedia Environmental Sciences Do phytoplankton nutrient ratios reflect patterns of water column nutrient ratios ? A numerical stoichiometric analysis of Lake Kinneret. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 8(2011), 1657–1667. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proenv.2012.01.156

Liu, H., Ren, H., Hui, D., Wang, W., Liao, B., Cao, Q. 2014. Carbon stocks and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests ofChina. Journal of Environmental Management, 133, 86–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.11.037

M. Brander, L., J. Wagtendonk, A., S. Hussain, S., McVittie, A., Verburg, P. H., de Groot, R. S., van der Ploeg, S. 2012. Ecosystem service values for mangroves in Southeast Asia: A meta-analysis and value transfer application. Ecosystem Services, 1(1), 62–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2012.06.003

Masagca, J. T. 2011. Occurrence of arboreal-climbing grapsids and other brachyurans in two mangrove areas of southern Luzon, Philippines. Biotropia, 18(2), 61–73. https://doi.org/10.11598/btb.2011.18.2.242

Melaku Canu, D., Ghermandi, A., Nunes, P. A. L. D., Lazzari, P., Cossarini, G., Solidoro, C. 2015. Estimating the value of carbon sequestration ecosystem services in the mediterranean sea: An ecological economics approach. Global Environmental Change, 32, 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2015.02.008

Micheli, F. 1993. Feeding ecology of mangrove crabs in North Eastern Australia : mangrove litter consumption by Sesarma messsa and Sesarma smithii. J. Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol., 17(1), 165–186.

Nelson, M., Dempster, W. F., Allen, J. P. 2009. The water cycle in closed ecological systems: Perspectives from the Biosphere 2 and Laboratory Biosphere systems. Advances in Space Research, 44(12), 1404–1412. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2009.06.008

Nobbs, M. 2003. Effects of vegetation differ among three species of fiddler crabs ( Uca spp .). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 284, 41–50.

Patty, S. I. 2015. Karakteristik fosfat, nitrat dan oksigen terlarut di perairan selat lembeh, sulawesi utara. Jurnal Pesisir Dan Laut Tropis, 2(1).

Ratini. 2016. Perencanaan Konservasi Ekosistem Mangrove Di Desa Ujungalang Kecamatan Kampung Laut Kabupaten Cilacap. IPB University.

Rose, J. M., Bricker, S. B., Ferreira, J. G. 2015. Comparative analysis of modeled nitrogen removal by shellfish farms. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 91(1), 185–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.12.006

Santoso, A. B., Jennerjahn, T. C., Holtermann, P. 2010. TOTAL SUSPENDED MATERIAL DYNAMICS IN SEGARA ANAKAN LAGOON , of anthropogenic modification of the land . mangrove forest in Southern Java , is a prime example in regard with the complex. December.

Sari, L. K. 2016. Kajian Konektivitas Sedimentasi Dan Dampaknya Terhadap Sistem Sosial-Ekologis Perairan Laguna (Studi Kasus Laguna Segara Anakan). Institut Pertanian Bogor.

Sari, L. K., Adrianto, L., Soewardi, K., Atmadipoera, A. S., Hilmi, E. 2016. Sedimentation in lagoon waters (Case study on Segara Anakan Lagoon). AIP Conference Proceedings, 1730. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4947417

Sasaki, N., Chheng, K., Mizoue, N., Abe, I., Lowe, A. J. 2016. Forest reference emission level and carbon sequestration in Cambodia. Global Ecology and Conservation, 7, 82–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2016.05.004

Schaduw, J. N . 2018. Distribusi dan Karakteristik Kualitas Perairan Ekosistem Mangrove Pulau Kecil Taman Nasional Bunaken. Majalah Geografi Indonesia., 32(1), 40 – 49.

Su, Q., Qin, H., Fu, G. 2014. Environmental and ecological impacts of water supplement schemes in a heavily polluted estuary. Science of the Total Environment, 472, 704–711. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.106

Suhendra, Amron, A., Hilmi, E. 2018. The pattern of coastline change based on the characteristics of sediment and coastal slope in Pangenan coast of Cirebon, West Java. E3S Web of Conferences, 47. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20184706001

Supratno, T., Kasnadi. 2003. Peluang usaha Budidaya Alternatif dengan Pembesaran Kerapu di Tambak Melalui Sistem Modular.

Syakti, A. D., Ahmed, M. M., Hidayati, N. V., Hilmi, E., Sulystyo, I., Piram, A., Doumenq, P. 2013. Screening of Emerging Pollutants in the Mangrove of Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia. IERI Procedia, 5, 216–222. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ieri.2013.11.095

Syakti, A. D., Hidayati, N. V., Hilmi, E., Piram, A., Doumenq, P. 2013. Source apportionment of sedimentary hydrocarbons in the Segara Anakan Nature Reserve, Indonesia. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 74(1), 141–148. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.07.015

Teh, S. Y., DeAngelis, D. L., Sternberg, L. da S. L., Miralles-Wilhelm, F. R., Smith, T. J., Koh, H. L. 2008. A simulation model for projecting changes in salinity concentrations and species dominance in the coastal margin habitats of the Everglades. Ecological Modelling, 213(2), 245–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2007.12.007

Ukpong, I. E. 1997. Mangrove swamp at a saline/fresh water interface near Creek Town, Southeastern Nigeria. Catena, 29(1), 61–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(96)00058-6

UU 82 tahun 2001. 2001. UU no 82 tahun 2001 Pengelolaan Kualitas Air dan Pengendalian Pencemaran. In UU RI (pp. 421–487).

Volta, C., Ho, D. T., Friederich, G., Engel, V. C., Bhat, M. 2018. Influence of water management and natural variability on dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in a mangrove-dominated estuary. Science of the Total Environment, 635, 479–486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.088

Wang, Y., Ying, H., Yin, Y., Zheng, H., Cui, Z. 2019. Estimating soil nitrate leaching of nitrogen fertilizer from global meta-analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 657, 96–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.029

Wibowo, K., Titin, H. 2006. Pelestarian Hutan Mangrove Melalui Pendekatan Mina Hutan (Silvofishery). Jurnal Teknik Lingkungan PTL-BPPT, 7(3), 227–233.

Winarno, K., Setyawan, A . 2003. Penyudetan Sungai Citanduy, Buah Simalakama Konservasi Ekosistem Mangrove Segara Anakan. Jurnal Biodiversitas, 4(1), 63–72.

Yan, L., Guizhu, C. 2007. Physiological adaptability of three mangrove species to salt stress. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27(6), 2208–2214. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1872-2032(07)60052-3

Zuna, H . 1998. Analisis Ekologi-Ekonomi Sistem Tambak Tumpangsari di RPH Poponcal Desa Mayangan Kabupaten Dati II Subang. IPB University.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2021.17.2.817

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.