Sublethal toxicity test of mercury (Hg) in the flesh and tissue of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Yusnaini Yusnaini, Emiyarti Emiyarti, Indriyani Nur, Oce Astuti, Rahmad Sofyan Patadjai


This study tested the sublethal toxicity of mercury (Hg) in the flesh and tissue of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This research used an experimental method completely randomized design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 3 replications. The treatments used different Hg concentrations: Treatment A = 0.08 ppm; B = 0.16 ppm; C = 0.24 ppm; and the control group = without the addition of Hg. The parameters observed were the accumulation of mercury (Hg) in the flesh and tissue damage (histopathology) of the gills, kidneys and liver of tilapia. The results showed that the highest Hg accumulation was at the highest Hg concentration (treatment C = 0.24 ppm). Tissue damage was mainly found in the kidneys, liver and gills of fish exposed to Hg with indications of bleeding, tubular necrosis, vacuolization of epithelial cells, and mononuclear cell infiltration. The results showed that the toxicity of mercury to the organs increased with the increase in the concentration of Hg in water.


Keywords : flesh, mercury, Oreochromis niloticus, sublethal, tissue

Full Text:



Annabi A., Said K., Messaoudi I. 2013. Cadmium: bioaccumulation, histopathology and detoxifying mechanisms in fish. Am. J. Res. Commun.1: 60–79.

Arellano, J.M., Storch, V., Sarasquete, C. 1999. Histological changes and copper accumulation in liver and gills of the senegales sole, Solea senegalensis. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 44 (1): 62-72.

Ashraf, W. 2005. Accumulation of heavy metals in kidney and heart tissues of Epinephelus microdon fish from the Arabian Gulf. Environ. Monit. Assess. 101: 311-316.

Asmamaw, B. 2016. Transferrin in fishes. J. Coast. Life Med. 4 (3): 176-180. doi: 10.12980/jclm.4.2016j5-255.

Austin, B. 1998. The effects of pollution on fish health. J Appl Microbiol. Suppl. 1:234S-242S. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1998.tb05303.x.

Borgå, K. 2008. Bioaccumulation. In: Encyclopedia of Ecology. Academic Press, pp. 346-348.

Censi, P., Spoto, S.E., Saiano, F., Sprovieri, M., Mazzola, S. et al. 2006. Heavy metals in coastal water systems: A case study from the northwestern Gulf of Thailand. Chemosphere. 64: 1167-1176.

Connor, W.E. 2004. Will the dietary intake of fish prevent atherosclerosis in diabetic women? Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80 (3): 535–536,

Fatima, M., Usmani, N., Firdaus, F. Zafeer, M.F., Ahmad, S., Akhtar, K., Husain, S.M.D., Ahmad, M. H., Anis, E., Hossain, M.M. 2015. In vivo induction of antioxidant response and oxidative stress associated with genotoxicity and histopathological alteration in two commercial fish species due to heavy metals exposure in northern India (Kali) river. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 176–177 DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2015.07.004.

Giguere, A., Campbell, P.G.C., Hare, L., McDonald, D.G., Rasmussen, J.B. 2004. Influence of lake chemistry and fish age on cadmium, copper, and zinc concentrations in various organs of indigenous yellow perch (Perca flavescens), Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 61: 1702–1716. doi: 10.1139/f04-100.

Harper, C., Wolf, J.C. 2009. Morphologic effects of the stress response in fish. ILAR Journal. 50 (4): 387-396. doi: 10.1093/ilar.50.4.387.

Harris, W.S. 2007. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: A case for omega-3 index as a new risk factor. Pharmacol. Res. 55: 217–223. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2007.01.013.

Hastuti, A.R., Lumbanbatu, D.T.F., Wardiatno, Y. 2019. The presence of microplastics in the digestive tract of commercial fishes off Pantai Indah Kapuk coast, Jakarta, Indonesia. Biodiversitas, 20 (5):1233-1242. doi: 10.13057/biodiv/d200513.

Irianto, H.E., Hartati, S.T., Sadiyah, L. 2017. Fisheries and environmental impacts in The Great Jakarta Bay ecosystem. Ind. Fish. Res. J., 23 (2): 69-78.

Jezierska, B., Witeska, M. 2006. The metal uptake and accumulation in fish living in polluted waters. In: Twardowska et al. (Eds.), Soil and Water Pollution Monitoring, Protection and Remediation, pp. 3–23. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-4728-2_6.

Karataş, A., Karataş, E. 2016. Environmental education as a solution tool for the prevention of water pollution. J. Survey in Fish. Sci. 3 (1): 61- 70.

Liebel, S., Tomotake, M.E.M., Ribeiro C.A. 2013. Fish histopathology as biomarker to evaluate water quality. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Contam. 8 (2): 09-15. doi: 10.5132/eec.2013.02.002

Mohebi-Nejad, A., Bikdeli B. 2014. Omega-3 supplements and cardiovascular diseases. Tanaffos. 13 (1): 6-14.

Nur, I., Yusnaini. 2018. Parasites and histopathology of infected spiny lobster Panulirus spp. cultured in outer of Kendari Bay, Indonesia. AACL Bioflux 11 (1): 108-117.

Nur, I., Yusnaini., Idris, M., Sari, A. I. 2020. Study on the impact of environmental pollution: Parasitic infestation and conditions factor of fish living in amalgamation ponds. IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth Environ. Sci. 465 012042. doi:10.1088/1755-1315/465/1/012042.

Ogundiran, M.A., Fawole, O.O., Adewoye, S.O. 2007. Effects of soap and detergent effluents on the haematological profiles of Clarias gariepinus. Science Focus. 12: 84-88.

Riba, I., Conradi, M., Forja, J.M., DelValls, T.A. 2004. Sediment quality in the Guadalquivir estuary: Lethal effects associated with the Aznal collar mining spill. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48: 144-152. doi: 10.1016/s0025-326x(03)00391-6.

Ribeiro, C.A.O., Vollaire, Y., Sanchez-Chardi, A., Roche, H. 2005. Bioaccumulation and the effects of organochlorine pesticides, PAH and heavy metals in the Eel (Anguilla anguilla) at the Camargue Nature Reserve, France. Aqua Toxicol. 74: 53–69.

Ruiz-Picos, R. A., J. E. Sedeno-Dıaz and E.Lopez-Lopez. 2015. Histopathological indicators in fish for assessing environmental stress. In: R. H. Armon, O. Ha¨nninen (Eds.), Environmental Indicators, Springer Science, pp. 663-675. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-9499-2_38.

Siregar, A.S., Prayogo, N.A., Listiowati, E., Santoso, M., Yudha, I.G., Sholehah, T.W. 2018. Sublethal toxicity tests of mercury (Hg) to nilem fish (Osteochilus hasselti) gills tissue damage. E3S Web of Conferences, 47, 04001.

Stehr, C.M., Myers, M.S., Johnson, L.L., Spencer, S., Stein, J.E. 2004. Toxicopathic liver lesions in English sole and chemical contaminant exposure in Vancouver Harbour, Canada. Marine Environmental Research. 57 (1-2): 55–74. doi: 10.1016/S0141-1136(03)00060-6.

Tilami, S.K., Sampels, S. 2017. Nutritional value of fish: lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals. Fish. Sci. Aquac., doi: 10.1080/23308249.2017.1399104

Velmurugan, B., Mathews, T., Cengiz, E.I. 2009. Histopathological effects of cypermethrin on gill, liver and kidney of fresh water fish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822), and recovery after exposure, Environ. Technol. 30 (13): 1453-1460. doi: 10.1080/09593330903207194

Yamazaki, M., Tanizaki, Y., Shimokawa, T. 1996. Silver and other trace elements in a freshwater fish, Carassius auratus langsdorfii, from the Asakawa River in Tokyo, Japan, Environ. Pollut. 94: 83–90. doi: 10.1016/s0269-7491(96)00053-x.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à