The potency of Soft Coral Sarcophyton in Krakatau Seas as Cytotoxic Test

Tri Nur Sujatmiko, Tio Dwi Wibisono, Ariefianto Tri Mahadi, Paradita Hasanah, Hedi Indra Januar, Neviaty Putri Zamani


Soft coral is one of the marine organisms that produce secondary metabolites materials and has potency as anticancer. There is much research to find bioactive compounds in the organism, but it still lacks data to find potency of bioactive in soft coral that lives under acidification pressure. The objectives of this study are to determine the characteristic of acidification in Krakatau seas and to assess the potency of cytotoxic activity from soft coral Sarcophyton. Sampling was conducted in three locations, Legon Tuo, Legon Cabe, and Umang-umang Island, to take the sample and measure water quality. Cytotoxic test using MTT method (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolinon) to MCF-7 cancer cell line to measure growth inhibition percentage. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, post hoc analysis, and multivariate analysis. Water quality in Legon Tuo and Legon Cabe have significant different to Umang-umang Island. However, Legon Tuo and Legon Cabe are suitable as acidification site, while Umang-umang Island as the reference site. The characteristic of Krakatau seas, especially in Legon Tuo and Legon Cabe study site, was categorized in low acidification. In the cytotoxic activity, soft coral Sarcophyton from Legon Cabe (acidification site) is more potential than soft coral from Umang-umang Island (reference site).

Full Text:



Cooper, E.L., Yao, D. 2012. Diving for drugs: tunicate anticancer compounds. Drug Discov Today. 16 : 636-648.

Dobretsov, S., Tamimi, Y., Al-Kindi, M.A., Burney, I. 2016. Screening for anti-cancer compounds in marine organisms in Oman. Clinical and Basic Research. 16 (2) : 168-174.

Eniu, A., Torode, J., Magrini, N., Bricalli, G. 2016. Back to the ‘essence’ of medical treatment in oncology: the 2015 WHO model list of essential medicines. ESMO Open. 1 (2) : 1-5.

Fluery, B.G., Coll, J.C., Tentori, E., Duquesne, S., Fiqueiredo, L. 2000. Effect of nutrient enrichment on the complementary (secondary) metabolite composition of the soft Sarcophyton ehrenbergi (Cnidaria: Octocorallia : Alcyonaceae) of The Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology. 136 : 63-68.

Hall-Spencer, J.M., Rodolfo-Metalpa, R., Martin, S., Emma, R., Fine, M., Turner, S.M., Rowley, S., Tedesco, D., Buia, M.C. 2008. Volcanic carbon dioxide vents show ecosystem effects of ocean acidification. Nature. 454: 96-99.

Harper, M.K., Bugni, T.S., Copp, B.R., James, R.D., Lindsay, B.S., Richardson, A.D., Schnabel, P.C., Tasdemir, M., VanWagoner, R.M., Verbitski, S.M., Ireland, C.M. 2001. Introduction to the chemical ecology of marine natural products. In: McClinctock, J.B., Baker, B.J. (Eds.), Marine Chemical Ecology. CRC Press, Boca Raton. Pp. 2-69.

Inoue, S., Kayanne, H., Yamamoto, S., Kurihara, H. 2013. Spatial community shift from hard to soft corals in acidified water. Nature Climate Change. 3:683-687.

Januar, H.I., Zamani, N.P., Soedarma, D., Chasanah, E. 2016a. Changes in soft coral Sarcophyton abundance and cytotoxicity at volcanic CO2 seeps in Indonesia. AIMS Environmental Science. 3(2):239-248.

Januar, H.I., Zamani, N.P., Soedarma, D., Chasanah, E. 2016b. New cytotoxic cembranoid from Indonesia soft coral Sarcophyton sp. Pharmacognosy Research. 1-4.

Iswani, S., Tohir, D., Januar, H.I. 2014. Identifikasi senyawa sitotoksik karang lunak Sarcopython sp. dari Perairan Pulau Panggang Taman Nasional Kepulauan Seribu. Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 12(2):238-243.

Lee, A.V., Oesterreich, S., Dacidson, N.E. 2015. MCF-7 cells-changing the course of breast cancer research and care for 45 years. J Natl Cancer Inst. 107(7):1-4.

Liang, L.F., Guo, Y.W. Terpenes from the soft corals of the gebus Sarcophyton : chemistry and biological activities. Chem Biodiver. 10:2161-2196.

Pierrot, D.E., Lewis, E., Wallace, D.W.R. 2006. MS Exel Program Developed for CO2 System Calculations. ORNL/CDIAC-105a. Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA : Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Centre, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, US Department of Energy.

Putra, S.A., Damar, A., Samosir, A.M. 2014. Colonization of coral communities in the Krakatau island strict marine nature reserve, Indonesia. Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan. 19(2):63-74.

Rozirwan, Bengen, D.G., Zamani, N.P., Effendi, H., Chaidir. 2014. Skrining potensi senyawa bioaktif sebagai antibakteri pada karang lunak dari perairan Pulau Pongok Bangka Selatan dan Pulau Tegal Teluk Lampung. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Kelautan Tropis. 6(2):283-295.

Russo, P., Nastrucci, C., Cesario, A. 2011. From the sea to anticancer therapy. Curr Med Chem. 18:3551-3562.

Sawadogo, W.R., Boly, R., Cerella, C., Teiten, M.H., Dicato, M., Diederich, M. 2015. A survey of marine natural compounds and their derivatives with anti-cancer activity reported in 2012. Molecules. 20: 7098-7142.

[UNEP] United Nations Environment Programme. 2010. UNEP emerging issues: environmental consequences of ocean acidification: a threat to food [5 January 2017].

[WHO] World Health Organization. 2015. Cancer control: a global snapshot in 2015. [6 January 2017].

Wikanta T., Januar, H.I., Nursid, M. 2005. Uji aktivitas antiokasidan, dan sitositotoksik ekstrak alga merah Rhodymenia palmata. Jurnal Penelitian Perikanan Indonesia. 11(4):41-49.

Zachary I. 2003. Determination of cell number. In : Hughes D, Mehmet H, editor. Cell proliferation and apoptosis. Oxford (UK): BIOS Scientific Publisher Ltd. p 16-38.

Zhao, G., Maclean, A.L. 2000. A comparison of canonical discriminant analysis and principal component analysis for spectral transformation. PE&PR Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 66(7):841-847.

Zubair, M.S., Al-Footy, K.O., Ayyad, S.N., Al-Lihaibi, S.S., Alarif, W.M. 2015. A review of steroids from Sarcophyton species. Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters. doi: 10.1080/14786419.2015.1079187.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à