The Effect of Dietary Phytase Supplementation on Digestibility and Growth of Asian Seabass Lates calcarifer

Totok Yudhiyanto, Suminto Suminto, Diana Rachmawati

Abstract


The purpose of this research is to evaluate Asian sea bass digestibility and growth fed with phytase dietary supplementation on soybean based fish diet. The initial weight of fish was 4.99±0.2 g with stocking density of 20 fishes per tanks reared in 80 L tank of sea water for 6 weeks. Completely Randomized Design of 50% soybean meal with phytase supplementation of 0; 500; 1,000; and 1,500 FTU kg-1 and three replication was used in this trial. Chromium oxide (Cr2O3) was used as digestibility indicator. Multivariate anova and One way anova (SPSS); linear regression (Microsoft Excel) and polynomial orthogonal (Microsoft Excel and Maple) was used to analyze the data. The results of Multivariate anova showed that phytase supplementation affect total digestibility (KCT) and relative growth rate (RGR) of asian seabass significantly (P<0.01) with phytase dose 1,000 FTU. One way anova also indicated that phytase 1,000 FTU significantly affect all parameters. Apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) phosphorus had a very significant and dominant effect to total digestibility with R2 = 0.9669 than ADC protein and ADC fat (linear regression). KCT significantly affects efficiency of dietary protein (EPP) 30.57% and protein efficiency ratio (PER) 0.67%. EPP and PER significantly effect RGR 1.56%  day-1, simultaneously. The optimal dose of phytase supplementation is 1,220 FTU.


Full Text:

144-154

References


Ai, Q., Mai, K., Zhang, W., Xu, W., Tan, B., Zhang, C., Li, H. 2007. Effects of exogenous enzymes (phytase, non-starch polysaccharide enzyme) in diets on growth, feed utilization, nitrogen and phosphorus excretion of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 147: 502–508.

Ambasankar, K., Ahmad Ali, S., Syamadayal, J. 2009. Nutritional Requirements of Asian Seabass, Lates calcarifer. In: Course manual: National Training on Cage Culture (Ed. Imelda Joseph et al.), Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. December 14-23, 2009. Cochin. pp. 60-65.

Biswas, A.K., Kaku, H., Ji, S.C., Seoka, M., Takii, K. 2007. Use of soybean meal and phytase for partial replacement of fish meal in the diet of red sea bream, Pagrus major. Aquaculture 267: 284 – 291.

Boonyaratpalin, M., Williams, K. 2002. Asian Sea Bass, Lates Calcarifer. in Webster, C.D., and C.E. Lim (Eds). 2002. Nutrient Requirements and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. CABI Publishing.pp. 40-50.

Bulbul, M., Abdul Kader, M.D., Ambak, A.A., Hossain, M.S., Ishikawa, M., Koshio, S. 2015. Effects of crystalline amino acids, phytase and fish soluble supplements in improving nutritive values of high plant protein based diets for kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. Aquaculture 438: 98–104.

Cao, L., Wang, W., Yang, C., Yang, Y., Diana, J., Yakupitiyage, A., Luoa, Z., Li, D. 2007. Review : Application of Microbial Phytase in Fish Feed. Enzyme and Microbial Technology.11 p.

Cho, C.Y., Cowey, C.B., Watanabe, R. 1985. Finfish Nutrition in Asia : Methodological Approaches to Research and Development. International Development Research Centre. Ottawa. 154 pp.

Cuzon, G., Guttierez, D., Da Silva, A., Castillo A., de los Santos, N., Chiappa, X.,Gaxiola, G. 2011. Contribution to Protein/Energy Requirement and Metabolic Aspects for Two Carnivorous Species Lates Calcarifer, Epinephelus Morio Juveniles With Reference to Trout. In: Cruz-Suárez, L.E., Ricque-Marie, D., Tapia-Salazar, M., Nieto-López, M.G., Villarreal-Cavazos, D. A., Gamboa-Delgado, J., Hernández-Hernández, L. (Eds), Avances en Nutrición Acuícola XI - Memorias del Décimo Primer Simposio Internacional de NutriciónAcuícola, 23-25 de Noviembre, San Nicolás de los Garza, N. L., México. ISBN 978-607-433-775-4.Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México, pp. 224-235.

Danwitz, A. von, C.G.J. van Bussel, S.F. Klatt, C. Schulz. 2016. Dietary phytase supplementation in rapeseed protein based diets influences growth performance, digestibility and nutrient utilisation in turbot (Psetta maxima L.). Aquaculture 450: 405–411.

De, D., Ghoshal, T. K., Raja, R. A., Kumar, S. 2013. Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and digestive enzyme activity in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer juveniles fed diets supplemented with cellulolytic and amylolytic gut bacteria isolated from brackish water fish. Aquaculture Research: 1–11.

Fortes-Silva, R., F.J. Sánchez-Vázquez, F.J. Martínez. 2011. Effects of pretreating a plant-based diet with phytase on diet selection and nutrient utilization in European sea bass. Aquaculture 319: 417–422.

Hassaan, M.S., Soltan, M.A., Agouz, H.M., Badr, A.M. 2013. Influences of calcium/phosphorus ratio on supplemental microbial phytase efficiency for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research 39: 205–213.

Hien, T.T.T., Be, T.T., Lee, C.M., Bengtson, D.A. 2015. Development of formulated diets for snakehead (Channa striata and Channa micropeltes): Can phytase and taurine supplementation increase use of soybean meal to replace fish meal?. Aquaculture 448: 334 – 340.

Hughes, K.P., Soares, J.H. 1998. Efficacy of Phytase on Phosphorus Utilization in Practical Diets Fed to Striped Bass Moronesaxatilis. Aquaculture Nutrition 4: 133-140.

Ignatius, B. 2009. Grow Out Culture of Seabass in Cages. In: Course manual: National Training on Cage Culture (Ed. Imelda Joseph et al.), Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. December 14-23, 2009. Cochin. pp. 99-101.

Jegannathan, K.R., Nielsen, P.H. 2013. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Use in Industrial Production - A Literature Review. Journal of Cleaner Production 42 : 228-240.

Kies, A.K., De Jonge, L.H., Jongbloed, A.W., Kemm, P.A. 2006. Interaction between Protein, Phytate, and Microbial Phytase. In Vitro Studies.J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, pp, 1753-1758.

Kumar, V., Sinha, A.K., Makkar, H.P.S., De Boeck, G., Becker, K. 2011. Phytate and phytase in fish nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 96: 335–364.

Li, Y., Ai, Q., Mai, K., Xu, W., Deng, J., Cheng, Z. 2014. Comparison of high-protein soybean meal and commercial soybean meal partly replacing fish meal on the activities of digestive enzymes and aminotransferases in juvenile Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus (Cuvier, 1828). Aquaculture Research 45: 1051–1060.

Lim, S-J., Kim, S-S., Ko, G-Y., Song, J6W., Oh, D-H., Kim, J-D., Kim, J-U., Lee, K-J. 2011. Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal in Diets for Tiger Puffer, Takifuguru bripes. Aquaculture 313: 165–170.

Lim, S.-J., Lee, K-J. 2009. Partial replacement of fish meal by cottonseed meal and soybean meal with iron and phytase supplementation for parrot fish Oplegnathus fasciatus. Aquculture 290: 283 – 289.

Maldonado-García, M., J. Rodríguez-Romero, M. Reyes-Becerril, C.A. Álvarez-González, R. Civera-Cerecedo, M. Spanopoulos. 2012. Effect of Varying Dietary Protein Levels on Growth, Feeding Efficiency, and Proximate Composition of Yellow Snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869). Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 40(4): 1017-1025.

Monsan, P., M.J. O’Donohue. 2010. Industrial Biotechnology in the Food and Feed Sector. In :Soetaert, W. and E.J. Vandamme. 2010. Industrial Biotechnology Sustainable Growth and Economic Success (Eds). Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Germany. pp. 370-371.

Morales, G.A., Márquez, L., Saenz de Rodrigañez, M., Bermúdez, L., Robles, R., Moyano, F.J. 2014. Effect of phytase supplementation of a plant-based diet on phosphorus and nitrogen bioavailability in sea bream Sparusaurata. Aquaculture Nutrition 20: 172-182.

Morales, G.A., Moyano, F-J., Marquez, L. 2011. In Vitro Assessment of the Effects of Phytate and Phytase on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Bioaccessibility within Fish Digestive Tract. Animal Feed Science and Technology 170: 209– 221.

Murillo-Gurrea, D. P., Coloso, R.M., Borlongan, I.G., Serrano Jr, A.E. 2001.Lysine and arginine requirements of juvenile Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer). Journal of Appllied Ichthyology 17 : 49-53.

Murray, P.M., Moane, S., Collins, C., Beletskaya., T., Thomas, O.P., Duarte, A.W.F., Nobre, F.S., Owoyemi, I.O., Pagnocca, F.C., Sette, L.D., McHugh, E. Causse, E., Perez-Lopez, P., Feijoo, G., Moreira, M.T., Rubiolo, J., Leiro, M., Botana, L.M., Pinteus, S., Alves, C., Horta, A., Pedrosa, R., Jeffryes, C., Agathos, S.N., Allewaert, C., Verween, A., Vyverman, W., Laptev, I., Sineoky, S., Bisio, A., Manconi, R., Ledda, F., Marchi, M., Pronzato, R., Walsh, D.J. 2013. Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin. New Biotechnology 30(6): 839-850.

Papatryphon, E., Howell, R.A., Soares Jr, J.H. 1999. Growth and Mineral Absorption by Striped Bass Morones axatilis Fed a Plant Feedstuff Based Diet Supplemented with Phytase. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 30(2): 161-173.

Petersen, E.H., Phuong, T-H., Ng.K.,Dat, V.A., Tuan, L.V., Truc. 2011. Bioeconomics of Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, culture in Vietnam. In : ACE Discussion Paper.2011/3.15 p.

Pham, M.A., Lee, K-J., Dang, T.M., Lim, S-J., Ko, G-Y., Eo, J., Oh, D-H. 2008. Improved Apparent Digestibility Coefficient of Protein and Phosphorus by Supplementation of Microbial Phytase in Diets Containing Cottonseed and Soybean Meal for Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Asian-Australian Journal Animal Sciences 21(9): 1367-1375.

Rachmawati, D., Hutabarat, J. 2006. Efek Ronozyme P dalam Pakan Buatan Terhadap Pemanfaatan Efek Ronozyme P dalam Pakan Buatan Terhadap Pemanfaatan Pakandan Pertumbuhan Ikan Kerapu Macan (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). Ilmu Kelautan 11 (4), 193 – 200.

Ribeiro, F.F., Qin, J.G. 2016. Bioenergetics of cannibalism in juvenile barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch): exploring growth advantage of fish fed live prey and formulated diet. Aquaculture Research 47: 2324–2333.

Shapawi, R., Ebi, I., Yong, A. 2013a.Soybean Meal as a Source of Protein in Formulated Diets for Tiger Grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Juvenile. Part I: Effects on Growth, Survival, Feed Utilization and Body Compositions. Agricultural Sciences 4 (7): 317-323.

Shapawi, R., Ebi, I., Yong., Chong, M., Chee, L.K., Sade, A. 2013b. Soybean Meal as a Source of Protein in Formulated Diets for Tiger Grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus Juvenile. Part II: Improving Diet Performances with Phytase Supplementation. Agricultural Sciences 4 (6A): 19-24.

Silva-Carrillo, Y., Hernández, C., Hardy, R.W., González-Rodríguez, B., Castillo-Vargasmachuca, S. 2012. The Effect of Substituting Fish Meal with Soybean Meal on Growth, Feed Efficiency, Body Composition and Blood Chemistry in Juvenile Spotted Rose Snapper Lutjanus guttatus (Steindachner, 1869). Aquaculture 364-365 : 180-185.

Song, Z., Li, H., Wang, J., Li, P., Sun, Y., Zhang, L. 2014. Effects of Fishmeal Replacement with Soy Protein Hydrolysates on Growth Performance, Blood Biochemistry, Gastrointestinal Digestion and Muscle Composition of Juvenile Starry Flounder (Platichthys stellatus). Aquaculture 426–427 : 96–104.

Suprayudi M.A., Harianto, D., Jusadi, D. 2012. Kecernaan Pakandan Pertumbuhan Udang Putih Litopenaeus vannamei Diberi Pakan Mengandung Enzim Fitase Berbeda. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia 11 (2):103-108.

Takeuchi, T. 1988. Laboratory work, chemical evaluation of dietary nutrients.In: Watanabe, T., editor. Fish Nutrition and Mariculture. JICA Textbook, the General Aquaculture Course. Department of Aquatic Biosciences, Tokyo University of Fisheries. Tokyo. pp 179-233.

Thirunavukkarasu, A. R., Kailasam, M.,Sundaray, J. K. 2009.Success in Hatchery Development of Seabass and Its Potential for Commercial cage Culture in India.In: Course manual: National Training on Cage Culture (Ed. Imelda Joseph et al.). Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Cochin. pp. 71-80.

Vandenberg, G.W., Scott, S.L. Sarker, P.K. Dallaire, V., de la Noüe, J. 2011. Encapsulation of microbial phytase: Effects on phosphorus Bioavailability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Animal Feed Science and Technology 169: 230–243.

Yoo, G.-Y., Wang, X., Choi, S., Han, K.,.Kang, J-C., Bai;, S.C. 2005. Dietary Microbial Phytase Increased the Phosphorus Digestibility in Juvenile Korean Rockfish Sebastesschlegeli Fed Diets Containing Soybean Meal. Aquaculture 243: 315 – 322.

Zhu, W.X., Zhong, G.F. ., Hua, X.M., Ju, M., Chen, X.M., Du, Z.Y. 2015. The optimum active site of acidic phytase in the gastrointestinal tract of channel fish (Ictalurus punctatus) in vitro and in vivo studies. Aquaculture Nutrition: 1-9.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2017.13.2.263

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Lisensi Creative Commons
Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.