Effectiveness of Filter Media Compositions on Water Quality, Growth and Survival Rate of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Cultured in Recirculation System

Mamluatul Lailiyah, Dicky Harwanto, Desrina Desrina

Abstract


Market demand for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is increasing every year. This has encouraged aquaculture companies to apply intensive cultivation systems. However, these applications run the risk of increasing waste and decreasing water quality. One strategy to overcome those problems of water quality is to use recirculation aquaculture system. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of filter media composition on water quality, survival rate, and tilapia growth. The average body weight of the fish used was 3.84 ± 0.05 g per individual. A completely random experiment design with three treatments and three replications were applied. The treatments were combination of several filter media with different compositions, namely A (Dacron + 75% nets + 25% sand), B (Dacron + 50% nets + 50% sand) and C (Dacron + 25% nets + 75% sand).The water quality variables measured were pH, DO, temperature, ammonia, and VTR (Volumetric TAN Removal). The survival rate (SR), relative growth rate (RGR). and total amount feed fed (TFF) of fish were also measured. The results showed that the composition of the filter had a significant effect (P<0.05) between treatment. The best VTR was showed in Treatment C with value 54.65 gm-3d-1.

Keywords: Tilapia, recirculation, dacron, nets, sand


Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmed, N., and G. M. Turchini. 2021. Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS): Environmental Solution and Climate Change Adaptation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 297, 126604. Doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.126604.

Alfonso, S., M. Gesto, and B. Sadoul. 2020. Temperature increase and its effects on fish stress physiology in the context of global warming. Journal of Fish Biology 98 (6) : 1496-1508. DOI : 10.1111/jfb.14599.

Al-Hafedh, Y. S. and A. Alam. 2007. Design and Performance of an Indigenous Water Recirculating Aquaculture System for Intensive Production of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L) in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Recirculating Aquaculture, vol. 8.

An, S. and Q. Jin. 2021. Significant removal of ammonia nitrogen in low concentration from aqueous solution at low pH by advanced air stripping. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28 (26) : 1-13. 35113-35125. Doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13164-6.

Andriani, Y., Y. Dhahiyat and Z. Hasan. 2019. The Productivity of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Water Quality Condition in Different Filters in Aquaponics System. Global Scientific Journal, 7 (2) : 61-67. ISSN 2320-9186.

Ariyanto, D., K. Sumantadinata and A. O. Sudrajat. 2016. Diferensiasi Kelamin Tiga Genotipe Ikan Nila yang Diberi Bahan Aromatase Inhibitor. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 5(2) : 165-174.

Azevedo, R. S., A. Del’Duca, E. M. Rodrigues, T. A. Freato, and D. E. Cesar. 2018. Theory of Microbial Ecology: Applications In Constructing A Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquaculture Research : 1-11. Doi: 10.1111/are.13860.

Babatunde, T. A., Ibrahim, K., Abdulkarim, B., and Wagini, N. H. (2019). Co-production and biomass yield of amaranthus (Amaranthus hybridus) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in gravel-based substrate filter aquaponic. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(1), 255-261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40093-019-00297-5.

Bao, W., Z. Peng, D. Zhou, S. Zhu and Z. Ye. 2018. Performance Evaluation of An Intensive Pond Aquaculture System for Commercial Freshwater Fish Production. In 2018 ASABE Annual International Meeting (p. 1). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Bhargava, Y. 2018. Open-design Recirculating Systems for Zebrafish Culture. Aquacultural Engineering, 81 : 71-79. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.03.004.

Cao, Baoxin, G. Abakaria, G. Luo, H. Tana and X. Wua. 2019. Comparative Analysis of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budgets In a Bioflocs Aquaculture System and Recirculation Aquaculture System During Overwintering of Tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus). Aquacultural Engineering, 0144: 1-8. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2019.102026.

Chun, S. J., Y. Cui, C. Y. Ahn and H. M. Oh. 2018. Improving Water Quality Using Settleable Microalga Ettlia sp. and The Bacterial Community in Freshwater Recirculating Aquaculture System of Danio rerio. Water Research, 135 : 112-121. Doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.02.007.

Dauda, A. B., Nicholas R., W. W. Chen, I. Natrah and M. S. Kamarudin. 2018. Differences in Feeding Habits Influence the Growth Performance and Feeding Efficiencies of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and Lemon Fin Barb Hybrid (Hypsibarbus wetmorei × Barboides gonionotus) in a Glycerol-Based Biofloc Technology System Versus a Recirculating System. J. Aquaculture Engineering. Hlm 1-33. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.06.005.

Dediu, L., A. Docan, M. Cre?u, I. Grecu, A, Mogodan, M. Maereanu, and L. Oprea. 2021. Effects of Stocking Density on Growth Performance and Stress Responses of Bester and Bester?× Beluga? Juveniles in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. Animals, 11 (8) : 2292. Doi.org/10.3390/ani11082292.

Diansyah, S., F. Diana and A. Suwandi. 2018. Addition of Tofu Dregs as a Source of Vegetable Protein on Growth Performance of Tilapia Gift (Oreochromis niloticus) [Indonesian]. Jurnal Akuakultura, 2(1).

Dragomir, E. C., N. Patriche, M. Tenciu, A. ?o?oiu, and M. Crivineanu. 2020. Parasitic Diseases Identified in Cyprinus carpio (Carp) Population Reared in a Recirculating Pilot Aquaponic System (RAS). Cercet?ri Marine-Recherches Marines, 50 (1) : 174-185.

Effendi, H., B. A. Utomo, and N. T. Pratiwi. 2020. Ammonia and Orthophosphate Removal of Tilapia Cultivation Wastewater with Vetiveria zizanioides. Journal of King Saud University-Science, 32 (1) : 207-212. Doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2018.04.018.

Engler, P., P. Caillis, S. Voller and L. Labrie. 2018. Dietary Supplementation of A Mixture of Saponin-Rich Plants to Reduce Ammonia-Nitrogen Excretion In Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Sustainable Food Production, vol 2 : 6-12. Doi:10.18052/www.scipress.som/sfp.2.6.

Ferosekhan, S., S.K. Sahoo, S.S. Giri, B.K. Das, B.R. Pillai and P.C. Das. 2019. Broodstock Development, Captive Breeding and Seed Production of Bagrid Catfish, Mahanadi Rita, Rita Chrysea (Day, 1877). J. Aquaculture., 503 : 339-346. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2019.01.028.

Harwanto, D. and J. Y. Jo. 2010. The Need of Biofilter for Ammonia Removal in Recirculating Aquaculture System. Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology, 4 (1) 1 - 5

Harwanto, D., S. Y. Oh and J. Y. Jo. 2011a. Comparison of the Nitrification Efficiencies of Three Biofilter Media in a Freshwater System. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14 (4) : 363-369. Dx.doi.org/10.5657/FAS.2011.0363.

Harwanto, D., S. Y. Oh and J. Y. Jo. 2011b. Performance of Three Different Biofilter Media in Laboratory-Scale Recirculating Systems for Red Seabream Pagrus major Culture. Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 14 (4) : 371-378. Dx.doi.org/10.5657/FAS.2011.0363.

Hassan, S. M., M. A. Sulaimman, R. A. Rahman and R. Kamaruddin. 2018. Effects of Long Term and Continuous Magnetic Field Exposure on The Water Properties, Growth Performance, Plasma Biochemistry and Body Composition of Tilapia In A Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquacultural Engineering : 1-22. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.09.003.

Hisano, H., P. T. L. Barbosa, L. de Arruda Hayd and C. C. Mattioli. 2021. Comparative Study of Growth, Feed Efficiency, and Hematological Profile of Nile Tilapia Fingerlings In Biofloc Technology And Recirculating Aquaculture System. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 53 (1). doi:10.1007/s11250-020-02523-z.

Huda, R. N., T. Sulistiowati and T. Yuniarti. 2018. Application of RGH-Containing Cattle Testicular Meal in Artificial Feed on Sex Ratio, Growth and Survival of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [Indonesian]. Pena Akuatika: Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, 17(2).

Huicab-Pech, Z. G., M. R. Castaneda-Chavez and F. Lango-Reynoso. 2017. Pathogenic Bacteria in Oreochromis niloticus var. Stirling Tilapia Culture. Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal, 8 (2) : 1-11.

Kapgate, S., A. G Gore, G. S. Kale, S. I. Wanjari, K. P Wanode and R. B Balpande. 2018. Rapid Sand Filter Using Cocunut Shell As A Capping Media. International Conference on Emanations in Mordern Engineering Science and Management : 1-4. SSN: 2395-1303.

Ministry of Marine and Fisheries. 2018. Central Java Fishery Commodity Export Report [Indonesian]. BKIPM Semarang. Accessed from https://kkp.go.id/ in April 24, 2019.

Laghari, M. Y., P. K. Lashari, S. Rajput, T. Sadaf, H. Ikram, and N. T. Narejo. 2018. Growth Evaluation of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared in Fully Control System.University of Sindh Journal of Animal Sciences, 2(1) : 33-37.

Leal, J. F., M. G. P. Neves, E. B. Santos and V. I. Esteves. 2018. Use of Formalin in Intensive Aquaculture: Properties, Application and Effects on Fish and Water Quality. Reviews in Aquaculture, 10 (2) : 281-295. Doi.org/10.1111/raq.12160.

Lebel, L., P. Lebel and C. J. Chuah. 2018. Governance of Aquaculture Water Use. International Journal of Water Resources Development, page 1-24. Doi: 10.1080/07900627.2018.1457513.

Lepine, C., L. Christiansonc, J. Davidsona and S. Summerfelta. 2018. Woodchip Bioreactors As Treatment for Recirculating Aquaculture Systems’ Wastewater: A Cost Assessment of Nitrogen Removal. Aquacultural Engineering, 83 : 85–92. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.09.001.

Li, J and M. Convertino. 2021. Temperature Increase Drives Critical Slowing Down of Fish Ecosystems. PLoS ONE 16 (10): e0246222. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246222.

Lindholm?Lehto, P. C. and J. Vielma. 2019. Controlling of Geosmin And 2?Methylisoborneol Induced Off?Flavours in Recirculating Aquaculture System Farmed Fish—A Review. Aquaculture Research, 50 (1) : 9-28. Doi: 10.1111/are.13881.

Lindholm-Lehto, P. C., J.T. Pulkkinen, T. Kiuru, J. Koskela, and J. Vielma. 2021. Efficient Water Treatment Achieved in Recirculating Aquaculture System Using Woodchip Denitrification and Slow Sand Filtration. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28 : 65333–65348. Doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15162-0.

Mahmud, S., M. L. Ali, M. A. Alam, M. M. Rahman and N. O. Jørgensen. 2016. Effect of Probiotic and Sand Filtration Treatments on Water Quality and Growth of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Earthen Ponds of Southern Bangladesh. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 28 (3): 199-212. Doi.org/10.1080/10454438.2016.1188339.

Majdi, H. S., M. S. Jaafar and A. M. Abed. 2019. Using KDF Material to Improve The Performance of Multi-Layersfilters in The Reduction of Chemical and Biological Pollutants in Surface Water Treatment. South African Journal of Chemical Engineering, 28 : 39-45. Doi.org/10.1016/j.sajce.2019.01.003.

Mota, V. C., P. Limbu, C. I. Martins, E. H. Eding and J. A. Verreth. 2015. The Effect of Nearly Closed RAS on The Feed Intake and Growth of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and European Eel (Anguilla anguilla). Aquacultural Engineering, 68:1-5. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2015.06.002.

Muhtaliefa, S.N., Susilowati, T., Yuniarti, T., Harwanto, D., and Basuki, F. 2019. Production Performance of Sangkuriang Catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell-1822) N-2 (Nursery-2) Cultured on Recirculation System with Different Filter Media. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 246 (1): 012061

Ngoc, P. T. A., M. P. Le T. C. Meuwissen, R. H. Bosma, J. Verreth and A. O. Lansink. 2016. Adoption of Recirculating Aquaculture Systems in Large Pangasius Farms: A Choice Experiment. Aquaculture, 460 : 90-97. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.03.055.

Noviana, P., Subandiyono and Pinandoyo. 2014. The Effect of Probiotics in Artificial Feed on the Level of Feed Consumption and Growth of Tilapia Seeds (Oreochromis niloticus) [Indonesian]. Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, 3(4) : 183-190.

Obirikorang, K. A., N. W. Agbo, C. Obirikorang, D. A. Boateng, S. E. Ahiave and P. V. Skov. 2019. Effects of Water Flow Rates On Growth and Welfare of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Reared In A Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquacultur International : 1-34. Doi.org/10.1007/s10499-019-00342-0.

Oktavia, A.N., Hastuti, S., and Harwanto. D. 2021. The Role of Filter with Different Media Compositions on Water Quality and Survival of Pangasius (Pangasius sp.) in Recirculation Aquaculture System. Omni-Akuatika, 17 (1): 8-18.

Pfeiffer T. J. and Paul, S. W. 2011. Evaluation of Three Types of Structured Floating Plastic Media in Moving Bed Biofilters for Total Ammonia Nitrogen Removal in A Low Salinity Hatchery Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquacultural Engineering. 45 : 51– 59. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2011.06.003.

Pierrenia M.A., Rejeki, S., and Harwanto, D. 2021. The Effectiveness of Three Biofilter Media on Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN) Removal and Survival Rate of Tilapia Gift Seeds (Oreochromis niloticus) in Recirculation Aquaculture System. Omni-Akuatika, 17 (2): 78-89.

Pratiwi, A. 2019. Study of the Application of Jarwo in the Minapadi System on the Growth of Rice Plants and Tilapia [Indonesian]. Agriekstensia, 18 (1) : 48-56.

Pulido-Rodriguez, L. F., G. Cardinaletti, G. Secci, B. Randazzo, L. Bruni, R. Cerri, and G. Parisi. 2021. Appetite Regulation, Growth Performances and Fish Quality are Modulated by Alternative Dietary Protein Ingredients in Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Culture. Animals, 11 (7), 1919. Doi.org/10.3390/ani11071919

Razavi, S., G. Bordonaro, P. Ferro, J. Torgersen and F Berto, F. 2018. Porosity Effect On Tensile Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Specimens Produced by Laser Engineered Net Shaping Technology. Proceedings of The Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science. Doi.org/10.1177/0954406218813384.

Ridha M. T. and E. M. Cruz. 2001. Effect of Biofilter media on Water Quality and Biological Performance of The Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus L. Reared in a Simple Recirculating System. Aquacultural Engineering 24 : 157–166.

Sarkheil, M., M. Ameri, and O. Safari. 2021. Application of Alginate-Immobilized Microalgae Beads as Biosorbent for Removal of Total Ammonia and Phosphorus From Water of African Cichlid (Labidochromis lividus) Recirculating Aquaculture System. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-13. Doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16564-w.

Savin, C., B. Pasarin, M. Talpes, G. Hoha, M. Tenciu, E. Paltenea, E. Mocanu and A. Gruber. 2012. Filter System Performance in Tilapia Recirculating System. Animal Science and Biotechnologies, 45 (2) : 102-106.

Seemann, U. B., N. Kröncke, M. J. Slater and B. H. Buck. 2019. Polyculture Potential of Red Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and Noble Crayfish (Astacus astacus Linnaeus, 1758) In A Recirculating Aquaculture System. Sustainable Rearing of Crayfish In A Recirculating Aquaculture System Using The Example of Astacus Astacus, 53.

Selpiana, S., L. Santoso and B. Putri. 2013. Study of Digestibility Level of Artificial Feed Based on Trash Fish Meal on Red Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) [Indonesian]. E-Jurnal Rekayasa Dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan, 1(2) : 101-108.

Setijaningsih, L and L. H. Suryaningrum. 2015. Utilization of Catfish (Clarias batrachus) Cultivation Waste for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with Recirculation System [Indonesian]. Berita Biologi, 14 (3) : 287-293.

Shefat, S. H. T. and M. A. Karim. 2018. Nutritional Diseases of Fish in Aquaculture and Their Management: A Review. Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2 : 50-58. ISSN: 2581-5423.

Shofura, H., Suminto and D. Chilmawati. 2018. The Effect of "Probio-7" Addition to Artificial Feed on the Efficiency of Feed Utilization, Growth and Survival of Tilapia Seeds Gift (Oreochromis niloticus) [Indonesian]. Sains Akuakultur Tropis, 1(1).

Indonesian National Standard (SNI). 1999. Production of Tilapia Seeds of Spread Seed Class [Indonesian]. Badan Standarisasi Nasional. Jakarta. 13 Halaman.

Suantika, G., M. L. Situmorang, J. B. Kurniawan, S. A. Pratiwi, P. Aditiawati, D. I. Astuti and T. M Simatupang. 2018. Development of A Zero Water Discharge (ZWD)—Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) Hybrid System for Super Intensive White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Culture Under Low Salinity Conditions and Its Industrial Trial in Commercial Shrimp Urban Farming in Gresik, East Java, Indonesia. Aquacultural Engineering, 82 : 12-24. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaeng.2018.04.002.

Suminto, T. Susilowati and D. Chilmawati. 2019. Utilization of Waste Agricultural Products in Artificial Feed with Probiotics on Feed Efficiency, Growth and Survival of Dumbo Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Mass Culture Production [Indonesian]. Pena Akuatika: Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, 18(1). Doi:dx.doi.org/10.31941/penaakuatika.V18i1.733.

Suryadi, I. B. B., M. I. Fadylah, Iskandar and A. Yustiati. 2019. The Productivity of Using Current Generating Circular Tanks for Tilapia Fingerling (Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758)) Production. World News of Natural Science, 27 : 85-95. EISSN 2543-5426.

Tanjung, R. R. M., I. Zidni, I. Iskandar and J. Junianto. 2019. Effect of Difference Filter Media on Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) on Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Production Performance. World Scientific News, 118 : 194-208. EISSN 2392-2192.

Trang, N. T. D., D. Konnerup and H. Brix. 2017. Effects of Recirculation Rates on Water Quality and Oreochromis niloticus Growth in Aquaponic Systems. Aquaculture Engineering:1-23. PII: S0144-8609 (16) 30104-2. Dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.aquaeng.2017.05.002.

Umasugi, A., R. A. Tumbol, R. L. Kreckhoff, H. Manoppo, N. P. Pangemanan and E. L. Ginting. 2018. Use of Probiotic Bacteria to Prevent Streptococcus agalactiae Infection in Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus [Indonesian]. E-Journal Budidaya Perairan, 6(2) : 39-44. Doi.org/10.35800/bdp.6.2.2018.20556.

Wambua, D. M., P. G. Home, J. M. Raude and S. Ondimu. 2018. Environmental Requirements for Different Production Intensities of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) in Kenya. The 13th JKUAT Scientific, Technological and Industrialisation Conference : 390-405. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2020.07.019

Wang, K., K. Li, L. Liu, C. Tanase, C., R. Mols, and M. van der Meer. 2020. Effects of Light Intensity and Photoperiod on The Growth and Stress Response of Juvenile Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) In a Recirculating Aquaculture System. Aquaculture and Fisheries. Science Direct. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aaf.2020.03.001.

Wan-Mohtar, W. A. A. Q. I., N. M. Taufek, G. Yerima, J. Rahman, J.P. Thiran, K. Subramaniam, and V. Sabaratnam. 2020. Effect of Bioreactor-Grown Biomass From Ganoderma Lucidum Mycelium on Growth Performance and Physiological Response of Red Hybrid Tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) for Sustainable Aquaculture. Organic Agriculture. Doi:10.1007/s13165-020-00303-5

Xu, W., P.Y. Mawolo, J. Gao, L. Chu, Y. Wang, Z. Nie, and G. Xu. 2021. Effects of Supplemental Effective Microorganisms In Feed on The Growth, Immunity, and Appetite Regulation In Juvenile GIFT Tilapia. Aquaculture Reports, 19, 100577. Doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2020.100577.

Yanti, D. (2018). Recirculation System Using Different Filter Combinations on the Growth of Jelawat (Leptobarbus hoeveni) Fish Seeds [Indonesian]. Jurnal Ruaya: Jurnal Penelitian dan Kajian Ilmu Perikanan dan Kelautan, 6 (02). Doi.org/10.29406/rya.v6i02.1016.

Yustiati, A. I. Bangkit and I. Zidni. 2018. Masculinization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Using Extract of Bull Testes. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 139. Doi :10.1088/1755-1315/139/1/012008.

Zeitoun, M. M., K. E. D. M. El-Azrak, M. A. Zaki, B. R. Nemat-Allah and E. S. E Mehana. 2016. Effects of Ammonia Toxicity on Growth Performance, Cortisol, Glucose and Hematological Response of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aceh Journal of Animal Science, 1(1) : 21-28.

Zonneveld, N., E. A. Huisman and J. H. Boon. 1991. Fish Farming Principles [Indonesian]. Translation. PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Jakarta. 318p.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2023.19.1.963

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.