Potentiality of Solanum torvum as an agent of feminization Anabas testudineus Bloch 1792: a Review

Ahmad Uzair Baihaqi, Hany Handajani, Wanda Rahmania, Heryanto Heryanto


Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) has a high economic value. Females grow faster than males. Sex reversal is one of genetic engineering by manipulating their hormone that is able to change the phenotype from male to female or vice versa. “Cepoka” eggplant (Solanum torvum) has been known as a medicinal and kitchen ingredient. Phytochemical test on S. torvum showed revealed that this plant contains tannins, saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids and terpenoids. Solasodine is a steroidial glycoalkaloid compound contained in S. torvum which has anti-fertility effects. Besides solasodine, the content of Gosipol in phenol compounds with BM 518.55 Dalton also has been known to be able to inhibit spermatogenesis by reducing the concentration, motility and viability of spermatozoa. The solasodine contained in S. torvum has the potential to be used for sex transfer in A. testudineus. Based on many studies, the utilize of solasodine from S. torvum could decrease the motility of spermatozoa. Even the results of the histological test on spermatogenesis, S. torvum gave a positive trend in inhibiting tilapia testicular cells in microscopic observation. Based on it, the chances of successful feminization of S. torvum utilizing cepoka eggplant are very high. A factor that must be considered in feminization is the age of the larvae, immersion dosige, immersion time and environment.

Key Words : eggplant, Climbing perch, sex reversal, spermatozoa, solasodine

Full Text:



Abdul Zahri, Agus Oman Sudrajat, Muhammad Zairin Junior. 2016. Feminization of eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor Mc Clelland, 1844 through injection of the hormones estradiol and methyl testosterone combined with hCG and anti-dopamine. Jurnal iktiologi Indonesia, 16(2):159-169.[in Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v16i2.38

Alfarabi, M., & Widyadhari, G. 2018. Toxicity Test and Phytochemical Identification of Fruit Extracts and Rimbang Stems (Solanum Torvum Swartz). Al-Kauniyah: Biology Journal, 11(2), 109–115. [in Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.15408/kauniyah.v11i2.6360

Alireza Khiabani, Hossein Anvarifar, Hamed Mousavi-Sabe. 2016. Effect of dietary administration of methyltestosterone and vitamin C on the sex reversal and survival of Xiphophorus maculatus (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae). Poeciliid Research, 2016, Volume 6, Issue 1. http://www.pr.bioflux.com.ro

Andi Aliah Hidayani, Yushinta Fujaya, Dody Dharmawan Trijuno, Siti Aslamyah. 2016. Utilization of cow testicle flour as a natural hormone in Betta fish, Betta splendens Regan, 1910. Jurnal iktiologi Indonesia, 16(1):91-101. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v16i1.52

Arif Bayu Setiawan, Titik Susilowati, Tristiana Yuniarti. 2019. The Effect of Long Soaking Eggs in Testicular Flour Solution Against Maleization of Rainbow Fish (Melanotaenia sp.). Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology. 6(3),40-48.[In Indonesian] https://ejournal3.undip.ac.id/index.php/jamt/article/download/20396/19226

Ariyanto, D., Sumantadinata, K., & Sudrajat, A. O. 2010. Sex Differentiation and Growth Performance Trials of Two Genotypes of Tilapia Administered With Androgenic Hormone. Jurnal akuakultur Indonesia, 5(2), 101. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.15578/iaj.5.2.2010.101-107

Ayuningtyas, S. Q., Junior, M. Z., & Soelistyowati, D. T. 2015. Sex reversal of red tilapia using 17α-methyltestosterone-enriched feed and increased temperature. I, 14(2), 159–163. [In Indonesian]. http://repository.ipb.ac.id/handle/123456789/71628

Badkoobeh, P., Parivar, K., Kalantar, S. M., Hosseini, S. D., & Salabat, A. 2013. Effect of nano-zinc oxide on doxorubicin- induced oxidative stress and sperm disorders in adult male Wistar rats. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 11(5), 355–364. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3941413/

Baroiller, J. F., & D’Cotta, H. 2016. The Reversible Sex of Gonochoristic Fish: Insights and Consequences. Sexual Development, 10(5–6), 242–266. https://doi.org/10.1159/000452362

Benjamin, L. V., & Kutty, R. 2019. Sub-lethal effects of potassium dichromate on hematological and histological parameters in climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Anabantidae). International Journal of Aquatic Biology, 7(3), 140–145. https://doi.org/10.22034/ijab.v7i3.604

Bernal, R. A. D., Aya, F. A., De Jesus-Ayson, E. G. T., & Garcia, L. M. B. 2015. Seasonal gonad cycle of the climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Teleostei: Anabantidae) in a tropical wetland. Ichthyological Research, 62(4), 389–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10228-014-0454-3

Candra, M. V., Lukas, J. L., Adriani, L., & Adrianto, H. 2020. Activity of Takokak (Solanum torvum) Fruit Extract on Mortality of Adult Roundworms. Hang Tuah Medical Journal, 16(2), 204–216. [In Indonesian]. http://journal-medical.hangtuah.ac.id/index.php/jurnal1/index

Chakraborty SB, Mazumdar D, Chatterji U, Banerjee S. 2011. Growth of mixed-sex and monosex nile tilapia in different culture systems. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 11(3): 131-138. https://doi.org/10.4194/trjfas.2011.0117

Chen, L., Jiang, X., Feng, H., Shi, H., Sun, L., Tao, W., Xie, Q., & Wang, D. 2016. Simultaneous exposure to estrogen and androgen resulted in feminization and endocrine disruption. Journal of Endocrinology, 228(3), 205–218. https://doi.org/10.1530/JOE-15-0432

Debosree Mukherjee, Indranath Ghosal, Csaba Hancz, Suman Bhusan Chakraborty. 2018. Dietary Administration of Plant Extracts for Production of Monosex Tilapia: Searching A Suitable Alternative to Synthetic Steroids in Tilapia Culture. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 18: 267-275. https://doi.org/10.4194/1303-2712-v18_2_06

Dey, S., & Ghosh, A. R. 2019. Dose-specific biochemical and erythrocytic alterations of anthracene exposure on blood of Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology, 72, 103247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2019.103247

Dussenne, M., Gennotte, V., Rougeot, C., Mélard, C., & Cornil, C. A. 2020. Consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal on hormones and brain in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Hormones and Behavior, 121(November 2019), 104728. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2020.104728

Dwinanti, S. H., Putra, M. H., & Sasanti, A. D. 2018. Utilization of Coconut Water (Cocos Nucifera) for Masculinization of Guppy Fish (Poecilia Reticulata). Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia, 6(2), 117–122. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.36706/jari.v6i2.7155

Ekta Singh, VP Saini and OP Sharma. 2018. Orally administered 17 α methyl testosterone at different doses on the sex reversal of the red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic. 6(3): 301-305. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/V_P_Saini/publication/328353586

Elia, Satiawati, L., & M. Rumbajan, J. 2015. Quality of Wistar Rat (Rattus norvegicus) Sspermatozoa After Exposure to Electric Mosquito Repellent with Transflutrin Active Material. Jurnal E-Biomedik, 3(1). [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.35790/ebm.3.1.2015.6845

Emilda. 2015. Utilization of Sea Cucumber Offal Steroid Extract for Sex reversal in Gapi. Faktor Exacta, 5(4), 336–349. [In Indonesian]. http://dx.doi.org/10.30998/faktorexacta.v5i4.207

Fandana, L., Thaib, A., Ridwan, T., & Nurhayati. 2020. Histology of Tilapia Gonads (Oreochromis niloticus) with Feeding Eggplant (Solanum torvum) in Feed. Jurnal TILAPIA, 1(2), 1–5. [In Indonesian].


Firmansyah, R., Carman, O., & Soelistyowati, D. T. 2016. Rainbow Fish Iriatherina werneri (Meiken, 1974) with estradiol- 17β hormone. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 16(3), 269–278. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v16i3.26

Funda Turan. 2017. The Influence of Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on Sex reversal in Guppy Poecilia reticulata. International Journal of Secondary Metabolity. 4(3), 205-210. https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.370360

Ghosal, I., Mukherjee, D., Hancz, C., & Chakraborty, S. B. 2015. Efficacy of Basella alba and Tribulus terrestris extracts for production of monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 5(8), 152–158. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2015.50824

Grandi G, Giovannini S, Chicca M. 2007. Gonadogenesis in early developmental stages of Acipenser naccarii and influence of estrogen immersion on feminization. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, 23(1): 3-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0426.2006.00819.x

Grgurevic, N., Büdefeld, T., Rissman, E. F., Tobet, S. A., & Majdic, G. 2008. Aggressive Behaviors in Adult SF-1 Knockout Mice That Are Not Exposed to Gonadal Steroids During Development. Behavioral Neuroscience, 122(4), 876–884. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.122.4.876

Handajani, H., Widanarni, Budiardi, T., Setiawati, M. 2021. Phytoremediation by Echinodorus palaefolius to Reduce Nitrogen and Phosphate Waste of Intensive Culture Anguilla bicolor in Recirculation Aquaculture Systems. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology (IJASEIT), Vol.11(2), 783-790. https://doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.2.9521

Helilusiatiningsih, N., & Soenyoto, E. 2020. Analysis of Bioactive Antioxidants and Nutrients on Pokak Eggplant (Solanum torvum) as a Functional Food Material Buana Sains, 20(1), 7–19. [In Indonesian]. https://dx.doi.org/10.33366/bs.v20i1.1892

Helilusiatiningsih, N., Yunianta, Harijono, Bambang, S., Sujuti, H. 2019. Cytotoxic Activity of Pokak Eggplant Hexane Fraction (Solanum torvum) against T47D Cancer Cells. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, 30(4), 253–258. [In Indonesian]. http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jkb.2019.030.04.4

Helmizuryani, & Muslimin, B. 2016. Growth Performance of Mono Sex and Mixed Sex Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus). Omni-Akuatika, 12(2), 99–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2016.12.2.105

Helmizuryani, Djumanto, Muslimin, B., Aminah, R. I. S., Khotimah, K. 2020. The gonadal maturation of climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) with dietary supplement add on feed. AACL Bioflux, 13(2), 885–892. http://www.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2020.885-892.pdf

Helmizuryani, Muslimin B., Khotimah K. 2016. Fish Development Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) using a solution of milk and soy through soaking the larvae. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 17(2): 123-132. [In Indonesian]. http://dx.doi.org/10.32491/jii.v17i2.352

Hendrawan, V. F., Cakrawati, L. S., Aulanni’am, A., Wulansari, D., Oktanella, Y., Agustina, G. C. 2019. Impact of cepoka eggplant extract (Solanum torvum S.) and Kapok seed (Ceiba pentandra G.) on expression of p53 protein and the number of Leydig cells in rats. Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 7(9), 732–737. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.aavs/2019/7.9.732.737

Indranath Ghosal, Debosree Mukherjee,Csaba Hancz, Suman Bhusan Chakraborty. 2015. Efficacy of Basella albaand Tribulus terrestrisextracts for production of monosex Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 5(08),152-158. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2015.50824

Jiancao Gao, Shaozhen Liu, Ying ying Zhang, Yanping Yang, Cong Yuan, Shu Chen, Zaizhao Wang. 2015. Effects of 17 α-methyltestosterone on transcriptome, gonadal histology and sex steroid hormones in rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 15, 20-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbd.2015.05.001

Junius Akbar, Arthur Mangalik, Syachradjad Fran. 2016. Application of fermented aquatic weeds in formulated diet of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus). International Journal of Engineering Research & Science (IJOER). ISSN: [2395-6992] [Vol-2, Issue-5 May- 2016. https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/46279220/IJOER-MAY-2016-40.pdf?1465221516

Kamilah Hayati, E., Fasyah, A., Sa’adah, L. 2010. Fractionation and Identification of Tannin Compounds in Wuluh Starfruit (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.) Leaves. Jurnal Kimia, 4(2), 78–82. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.35308/jopt.v4i2.1475

Karmakar, K., Amirul Islam, M., Afrin Chhanda, S., Islam Tuhin, T., Muslim, T., Azizur Rahman, M. 2015. Secondary Metabolites from the Fruits of Solanum torvum SW. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 4(1), 160–163. http://www.phytojournal.com/archives/2015/vol4issue1/PartC/4-1-52.1-762.pdf

Kaspul. 2016. Effect of Eggplant Fruit (Solanum torvum Sw) on Spermatogenesis of White Rats (Rattus norvegicus L).Sains Dan Terapan Kimia, 10(1), 27–32. [In Indonesian]. http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jstk.v10i1.3158

Kata, F. S. 2008. Effect of Dichlorvos Pesticide on Fertility of Laboratory Male Mice (Mus musculus L.). Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research, 7(1), 9–18. https://doi.org/10.33762/bvetr.2008.55454

Khiabani, A., Anvarifar, H., & Mousavi-sabet, H. 2016. Effect of dietary administration of methyltestosterone and vitamin C on the sex reversal and survival of Xiphophorus maculatus (Cyprinodontiformes : Poeciliidae). Poeciliid Research, 6(1), 16–24. http://www.pr.bioflux.com.ro/docs/2016.16-24.pdf

Laili, N., Hidayati, D., Tita, D., Prodi, N., Stikes, F., Tunas, B., Tasikmalaya, H. 2014. The Effect of Fruit Eggplant Cepoka Infusion Against White Male Rats Spermatozoa Concentration. Jurnal Kesehatan Bakti Tunas Husada, 12(1), 202–213. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.36465/jkbth.v12i1.80

Lajira, M. M., Ehrich Lister, I. N. 2019. Antibacterial Test of Takokak Fruit Extract (Solanum torvum Swartz) on the Growth of Propionibacterium Acnes Bacteria. BIOLINK (Jurnal Biologi Lingkungan Industri Kesehatan), 6(1), 73. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.31289/biolink.v6i1.2237

Li, M., Sun, L., Wang, D. 2019. Roles of estrogens in fish sexual plasticity and sex differentiation. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 277, 9–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.11.015

Mandal, B., Kumar, R., Jayasankar, P. 2016. Efficacy of exogenous hormone (GnRHa) for induced breeding of climbing perch Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) and influence of operational sex ratio on spawning success. Animal Reproduction Science, 171, 114–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2016.06.006

Mateen, A., Ahmed, I. 2015. Androgen sex reversal, subsequent growth and meat quality of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 52(1), 199–202. http://www.pakjas.com.pk/papers%5C2407.pdf

Maurice Eghosa Imiuwa. 2020. Induction of gonadal sex reversal in adult gonochorist teleost by chemical treatment: an examination of the changing paradigm. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 81:26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41936-020-00164-0

Midhun, S. J., Neethu, S., Vysakh, A., Sunil, M. A., Radhakrishnan, E. K., Jyothis, M. 2017. Antibacterial activity of autochthonous bacteria isolated from Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) and it’s in vitro probiotic characterization. Microbial Pathogenesis, 113, 312–320. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.10.058

Minarno, E. B. 2016. Analysis of Saponin Content on the Leaves and Petioles of Carica Pubescens Lenne & K. Koch. El–Hayah, 5(4), 143. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.18860/elha.v5i4.3470

Minghui Li, Lina Sun, Deshou Wang. 2018. Roles of estrogens in fish sexual plasticity and sex differentiation. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Volume 277, 1 June 2019, Pages 9-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.11.015

Mustika, R., Sofia, L. A., Agusliani, E., Muhammad, M. 2020. Performance and Business Prospects of Papuyu Fish Hatchery (Anabas testudineus) in South Kalimantan. Jurnal Sosial Ekonomi Kelautan Dan Perikanan, 15(1), 83–92. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.15578/jsekp.v15i1.7674

Nadia Falah, Jennifer E. Posey, Willa Thorson, Paul Benke, Mustafa Tekin, Brocha Tarshish, James R. Lupski, Tamar Harel. 2016. 22q11.2q13 duplication including SOX10 causes sex-reversaland peripheral demyelinating neuropathy, central dysmyelinating leukodystrophy, Waardenburg syndrome, and Hirschsprung disease. American Journal of Willey Medical Gnenetics. 173: 1066–1070. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.38109

Nakamura, M., Bhandari, R. K., Higa, M. 2003. The role estrogens play in sex determination and sex changes of fish. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 28(1), 113–117. 10.1023/B:FISH. https://doi.org/0000030495.99487.17

Neri Kautsari, Siti Rahma, Dedy Syafikri. 2015. The effect of soaking larvae with various doses of Sumbawa honey on the sex ratio and growth of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758). Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 15(2): 99-106. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v15i2.64

Nurlina dan Zulfikar. 2016. The effect of immersion time for guppy broodfish (Poecilia reticulate) in honey on the male sex ratio (sex reversal) of guppy fish. Acta Aquatica, 3(2): 75-80. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.29103/aa.v3i2.327

Nurulnadia, M. Y., Noradila, A. B., Adiana, G. 2020. Turbidity effects of suspended bauxite in embryonic stage of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) post fertilization. Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Research, 46(2), 181–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejar.2020.02.006

Pal, P., Moulik, S. R., Gupta, S., Guha, P., Majumder, S., Kundu, S., Mallick, B., Pramanick, K., Mukherjee, D. 2018. Estrogen-regulated expression of P450arom genes in the brain and ovaries of adult female Indian climbing perch, Anabas testudineus. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 329(1), 29–42. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2158

Patel, K., Singh, R. B., Patel, D. K. 2013. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of solasodine: A concise report of current scientific literature. Journal of Acute Disease, 2(2), 92–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2221-6189(13)60106-7

Penman, D. J., Piferrer, F. 2008. Fish gonadogenesis. part I: Genetic and environmental mechanisms of sex determination. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 16(1), 14–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641260802324610

Piferrer, F., Guiguen, Y. 2008. Fish gonadogenesis. part II: molecular biology and genomics of sex differentiation. Reviews in Fisheries Science, 16(1), 33–53. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641260802324644

Pinto, P. I. S., Estêvão, M. D., Power, D. M. 2014. Effects of estrogens and estrogenic disrupting compounds on fish mineralized tissues. Marine Drugs, 12(8), 4474–4494. https://doi.org/10.3390/md12084474

Piwpong, N., Chiayvareesajja, J., Chiayvareesajja, S. 2016. Growth and survival of a diallel cross for five strains of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus Bloch, 1792) in Thailand. In Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50(5), 351–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anres.2016.05.001

Puja Pal, Sujata Roy Moulik, Shreyasi Gupta, Payel Guha, Suravi Majumder, Sourav Kundu, Buddhadev Mallick, Kousik Pramanick, Dilip Mukherjee. 2018. Estrogen regulated expression of P450arom genes in the brain and ovaries of adult female Indian climbing perch, Anabas testudineus. JEZ-A Ecologgical and Integrative Physiologi. J. Exp. Zool. 2018;1–14. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2158

Purwati, H., Herliwati, Fitriliyani, I. 2015. Feed on the Growth of Commercial Fish Post Larva. Fish Scientiae. 5(10), 60–72. https://doi.org/10.20527/fs.v5i10.1900

Rafiqa, Ramadhan, A., & Tureni, D. 2013. Effect of Giving Dutch Eggplant Fruit Extract (Solanum bataceum) on Morphology and Motility of Spermatozoa in Mice (Mus musculus). E-Jipbiol, 1, 50–56. [In Indonesian]. http://jurnal.untad.ac.id/jurnal/index.php/EBiol/article/download/2686/1804

Rahman, N., Marliyati, sri anna, Damanik, muhammad rizal martua, Anwar, F. 2013. Antioxidant Activity and Total Phenol Content of Ethanol Extract Takokak Fruit (Solanum torvum). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12(11), 973–977. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2013.973.977

Rahmat Hidayat, Odang Carman, Alimuddin. 2016. Sexual dimorphism related to growth in climbing perch Anabas testudineus. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 15 (1), 8–14 (2016). https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.15.8.14

Rahul, Ranjan., Madhav, Kumar Shrestha., Narayan, Prasad Pandit., & Nabin, Babu Khanal. 2015. Efficacy of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) testis on sex reversal of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fry. Nepalese Journal of Aquaculture and Fisheries. 2, 1-12. http://nefis.org.np/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/NJAF-Vol-2-2015

Redha, A. 2010. Flavonoid: Structure, Antioxidative Properties and Their Role in Biological Systems. Jurnal Berlin, 9(2), 196–202. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.1186/2110-5820-1-7

Ren Y., Zhou Q., Liu Y., Wang Y., Wang Q., Jiang X., Zhang H. 2018. Effects of estradiol‐17β on survival, growth performance, gonadal structure and sex ratio of the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850), fingerlings. Aquaculture Research 49(4): 1638-1646. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13619

Riaz, P. and M. Naeem. 2020. Digestive enzymes activity with gut morphometric parameter of carnivorous fish Wallago attu (Siluridae, siluriformes). Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 36(3): 832-839. http://dx.doi.org/10.17582/journal.sja/2020/36.3.832.839

Robert, E.A., Ovie, S.O., Onyeche, V.O. 2019. Effect Of 17-α-Methyl Testosterone (Mt) On All-Male Sex reversal And Determination, Growth And Survival Of Clarias gariepinus Juveniles In Concrete Stagnant Systems. Scientific Research Journal, 7(8), 105–118. https://doi.org/10.31364/scirj/v7.i8.2019.p0819691

Rumouw, D. 2017. Identification and Analysis of Phytochemical Content of Medicinal Plants Utilized by Communities Around the Sahedaruman Protected Forest Area. LPPM Bidang Sains Dan Teknologi, 4(2), hal. 53-66. [In Indonesian]. https://ejournal.unsrat.ac.id/index.php/lppmsains/article/download/18862/18412

Safir M, Tobigo DT, Mangitung SF, Madinawati, Zainab. 2020. Masculinization of Banggai Cardinalfish (Pterapogon kauderni) using 17α-Methyltestosterone-enriched Artemia sp. Omni-Akuatika, 16 (2): 135–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2020.16.2.809

Safra Qisthina Ayuningtyas, Muhammad Zairin Junior, Dinar Tri Soelistyowati. 2015. Male sex switching of tilapia using 17α-methyltestosterone through feed and temperature increase. Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia 14 (2), 159–163. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.19027/jai.14.159-163

Shao, P., Liu, Q., Maina, P. K., Cui, J., Bair, T. B., Li, T., Umesalma, S., Zhang, W., & Qi, H. H. 2017. Histone demethylase PHF8 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and breast tumorigenesis. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(4), 1687–1702. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw1093

Siburian, A. L. M., Gunawan, I., & Djauhari, R. 2020. Ratio of Calcium Phosphorus, Blood Glucose and Growth Performance of Betok Fish (Anabas testudineus) Given Prebiotic Inulin. Jurnal Ilmu Hewani Tropika, 9(1), 1–7. [In Indonesian]. https://unkripjournal.com/index.php/JIHT/article/download/160/156

Singh, E., Saini, V. P., & Sharma, O. P. 2018. Orally administered 17 α methyl testosterone at different doses on the sex reversal of the red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 6(3), 301–305. www.fisheriesjournal.com

Singh, K., Munilkumar, S., Sahu, N. P., Das, A., & Devi, G. A. 2019. Feeding HUFA and vitamin C-enriched Moina micrura enhances growth and survival of Anabas testudineus (Bloch, 1792) larvae. Aquaculture, 500, 378–384. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.09.049

Solahuddin Siregar, Mochamad Syaifudin1, Marini Wijayanti. 2018. Masculinization of Betta Fish (Betta splendens) With Immersion of Natural Honey. Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia, 6(2): 141- 152. https://doi.org/10.36706/jari.v6i2.7158

Sridevi, T. 2011. Effect of doxorubicin on the biochemical activities of the male reproductive system of white mice, Mus musculus. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 4(12), 1715–1720. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2011/v4i12/30317

Stelkens, R. B., & Wedekind, C. 2010. Environmental sex reversal, Trojan sex genes, and sex ratio adjustment: Conditions and population consequences. Molecular Ecology, 19(4), 627–646. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2010.04526.x

Sun, Z. H., Zhou, L., Li, Z., Liu, X. C., Li, S. S., Wang, Y., & Gui, J. F. 2017. Sexual dimorphic expression of dnd in germ cells during sex reversal and its requirement for primordial germ cell survival in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part - B, 208–209, 47–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpb.2017.04.003

Susilo, H., & Akbar, B. 2016. Effect of Takokak Fruit Extract (Solanum torvum S.) on the Amount and Motility of White Rat (Rattus norvegicus L.) Spermatozoa Sprague Dawley Strain. Biomedika, 9(2), 5. [In Indonesian]. http://repository.uhamka.ac.id/id/eprint/960

Syafutri, M. I., Fitrani, M., Syaiful, F., & Purba, I. 2018. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Betok Fish (Anabas testudineus) from Swamp Water in South Sumatera, Indonesia. E3S Web of Conferences, 68, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/20186804015

Thao B. Huynha, William T. Fairgrieveb, Edward S. Haymanc, Jonathan S.F. Leeb, J. Adam Luckenbachb. 2019. Inhibition of ovarian development and instances of sex reversal in genotypic female sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) exposed to elevated water temperature. General and comparative Endocrinology 279, 88 – 89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2018.12.013

Tomi Malik, Mochamad Syaifudin, Mohamad Amin. 2019. Masculinization of Guppy Fish (Poecilia reticulata) Through Using Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera) With Different Concentrations. Jurnal Akuakultur Rawa Indonesia. 1, 13 - 24. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.36706/jari.v7i1.9017

Turan, F. 2017. The Influence of Licorice Root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on Sex reversal in Guppy Poecilia reticulata. International Journal of Secondary Metabolite, 4(1), 205–210. https://doi.org/10.21448/ijsm.370360

Uddin, S., Hasan, M. H., Iqbal, M. M., Hossain, M. A. 2017. Study on the reproductive biology of Vietnamese climbing perch (Anabas testudineus, Bloch). Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 32(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

Wang, F., Jia, Y. F., Wang, P., Du, Q. Y., Chang, Z. J. 2017. Effects of letrozole on gonad differentiation of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 49(6), 1969–1981. https://doi.org/10.17582/journal.pjz/2017.49.6.1969.1981

Wang, Q., Huang, M., Peng, C., Wang, X., Xiao, L., Wang, D., Chen, J., Zhao, H., Zhang, H., Li, S., Yang, H., Liu, Y., Lin, H., Zhang, Y. 2018. MT-feeding-induced impermanent sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper during sex differentiation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(9), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19092828

Wannasiri, S., Chansakaow, S., Sireeratawong, S. 2017. Effects of Solanum torvum fruit water extract on hyperlipidemia and sex hormones in high-fat fed male rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(5), 401–405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtb.2017.01.027

Wulansari, D., Oktanella, Y., Hendrawan, V. F., Agustina, G. C. 2019. Effectiveness of Solasodine and Gosipol as Contraceptive Candidates in Animal Contraception Candidates in Animals in Inhibiting Reproduction of White Rats (Reproduction of Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) through Males through LH Expression and Spermatogenesis. Veterinary Biomedical & Clinical Journal, 1(2), 51–59. [In Indonesian]. https://vbcj.ub.ac.id/index.php/vbcj/article/download/17/17

Yuqin Ren, Qin Zhou, Yongxin Liu, Yufen Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xiufeng Jiang, Qinghai Yu, Hongtao Zhang. 2018. Effects of estradiol‐17β on survival, growth performance, gonadal structure and sex ratio of the tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes (Temminck & Schlegel, 1850), fingerlings. Aquaculture Research. 2018;00:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.13619

Yustiati, A., Bangkit, I., Zidni, I. 2018. Masculinization of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using extract of bull testes. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 139(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/139/1/012008

Zahri, A., Sudrajat, A. O., Zairin Junior, M. 2017. Feminization of eel, Anguilla bicolor bicolor Mc Clelland, 1844 through injection of the hormones estradiol and methyl testosterone combined with hCG and anti-dopamine. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia, 16(2), 159–169. [In Indonesian]. https://doi.org/10.32491/jii.v16i2.38

Zhang, W., Xie, H. Q., Zou, X., Li, J., Xu, L., Li, Y., Zhou, Z., Jin, T., Ma, D., Zhao, B. 2019. The toxic effects of in situ exposure of a native fish species (Anabas testudineus) to electronic waste pollution. Science of the Total Environment, 690, 1170–1177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.06.479

Zhang, X., Li, M., Ma, H., Liu, X., Shi, H., Li, M., Wang, D. 2017. Mutation of foxl2 or cyp19a1a results in female to male sex reversal in XX nile tilapia. Endocrinology, 158(8), 2634–2647. https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2017-00127

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2022.18.1.901

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.