The Osmotic Response and Hydromineral Status of Transported Anguilla bicolor bicolor Glass Eels with Various Ratios of Biomass and Water Volume

Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa, Eddy Supriyono, Tatag Budiardi, Mia Setiawati, Bambang Priyo Utomo, Ridwan Affandi


This research was conducted to determine the closed transportation system with biomass and water volume ratio that can support the osmoregulation ability of glass eel significantly. Glass eel was obtained from catching activities in the Cimandiri River, Pelabuhan Ratu (mean length 52.40+0.84 mm and weight 0.10+0.01 g) and acclimatized for 24 hours at salinity 6 mg L-1 and temperature 20°C gradually.The research design was a completely randomized design. The applied treatment was glass eel closed transportation system with various ratio of glass eel biomass (kg): water volume (L), i.e. 1:11; 1:12; 1:13; and 1:14 during 24 hours of land transportation and continued with a 3-day recovery period.The water was used refer to the above acclimatization method, with ratio the water part of pure oxygen in a plastic bag was 1:3. The measured parameters include survival rate, osmotic gradient, body hydromineral, and water quality in transport packaging and recovery medium. Survival rates were generated in the high range until recovery period (P<0.05), but the transportation method caused differences significantly (P<0.05) in osmotic response and hydromineral status (sodium, chloride, potassium, and water content), so that it will affect production performance in the next stage of culture. Ratio of glass eel biomass: water volume of 1:13 has been able to support the ability of osmoregulation glass eel to maintain homeostatic condition during the transportation until 3 days of recovery period. There was no drastic decline in physical and chemical value of water in the transport bag so it could reduce the mortality rate for 24 hours.

Full Text:



Affandi, R., Riani E.1995. Effect of salinity on survival rate and growth of elver (Anguilla bicolor bicolor).Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Perairan dan Perikanan 3, 39-48.

Affandi, R., Suhenda N. 2003. The cultivation technique of sidat Anguilla bicolor bicolor. National Forum Proceedings of Tropical Fishery Resources. Jakarta (ID): BPPT.47-54.

Ando, M., Takei, Y. 2014. Intestinal absorption of salt and water. In : Eel physiology. Trischitta F., Takei, Y., Sebert, P. (Eds), Florida (US): CRC Press, 370 p.

[AOAC] Association of Analytical Chemists. 2010. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International 18th. Horwitz, W., Latimer, G.W. (Eds). Maryland (USA): AOAC International.

[APHA] American Public Health Association. 2012. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Washington DC (US): American Public Health Association,1360p.

Appelbaum, S., Chernitsky, A., Birkan, V. 1998. Growth observations on European (Anguilla anguilla L.) and American (Anguilla rostrata Le Sueur) glass eels. Bulletin Français de la Pêcheet de la Pisciculture 349,187-.193.

Arjona, F.J., Vargas-Chacoff, L., Ruiz-Jarabo, I., Gonçalves, O., Pascoa, I., Martín del Río, M.P., Mancera, J.M. 2009. Tertiary stress responses in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) to osmotic challenge : Implications for osmoregulation, energy metabolism and growth. Aquaculture 287, 419–426.

Barton, B.A. 2002. Stress in fishes: A diversity of responses with particular reference to changes in circulating corticosteroids. Integrative and Comparative Biology 42, 517-525.

Berka, R. 1986. The transport of live fish: a review (No.48). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 52p.

Boerrigter, J.G., Manuel, R., Bos, R., Roques, J.A, Spanings, T., Flik, G., Vis, H.W. 2013. Recovery from transportation by road of farmed European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Aquaculture Research 46, 1248-1260.

Boeuf, G., Payan, P. 2001. How should salinity influence fish growth? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C130, 411-423.

Bogdan, E., Waluga, D. 1980. The effect of transport on the quality of eel stocking material. Aquaculture 20, 139-146.

Carneiro, P.C.F., Urbinati, E.C. 2002. Transport stress in matrinxa, Bryconcephalus (Teleostei: Characidae), at different densities. Aquaculture International 10, 221-229.

Da Silva, T.V.N., Barbas, L.A.L., Torres, M.F., Sampaio, L.A., Monserrat, J.M. 2017. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity in Peckoltia oligospila (Günther, 1864) submitted to transport under different concentration of dissolved oxygen. Aquaculture 481, 72-78.

Gomes, L.C., Araujo-Lima, C.A.R.M., Roubach, R., Chippari-Gomes, A.R., Lopes, N.P., Urbinati, E.C. 2003. Effects of fish density during transportation on stress and mortality of juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society 34, 76-84.

Haryono, H., Wahyu dewantoro, G. 2016. Pemetaan habitat ruaya benih ikan sidat

(Anguilla bicolor) dan potensinya di pantai selatan Jawa. Omni-Akuatika 12, 7-58

Iversen, M., Finstad, B., Nilssen, K.J. 1998. Recovery from loading and transport stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts. Aquaculture 168,387–394.

Lukas, A.Y.H., Djoko setiyanto, D., Budi ardi, T., Sudrajat, A.O., Affandi, R. 2017. Optimization of salinity and calcium on Indonesian shortfin eel Anguilla bicolor maintenance. AACL Bioflux 10, 951-96.

Luo, M., Guan, R., Li, Z., Jin, H. 2013. The effects of water temperature on the survival, feeding, and growth of the juveniles of Anguilla marmorata and A. bicolor pacifica. Aquaculture 400-401, 61-64.

Martemyanov, V.I. 2015. Dynamics of the content of various fractions of water in the organism of roach Rutilus rutilus L. in response to catching, transportation, and further acclimation to laboratory conditions. Inland Water Biology8, 402-405.

McCormick, S.D.,Bradshaw, D. 2006. Hormonal control of salt and water balance in vertebrates. General and Comparative Endocrinology 147, 3-8.

Morgan, J.D., Iwama, G.K. 1998. Salinity effects on oxygen consumption, gill Na+, K+‐ATPase and ion regulation in juvenile coho salmon. Journal of Fish Biology 53, 1110-1119.

Oyoo-Okoth, E., Cherop, L., Ngugi, C.C., Chepkirui-Boit, V., Manguya-Lusega, D., Ani-Sabwa, J., Charo-Karisa, H. 2011. Survival and physiological response of Labeo victorianus (Pisces: Cyprinidae, Boulenger 1901) juveniles to transport stress under a salinity gradient. Aquaculture 319, 226-231.

Reitz, L.L., Smith, W.H., Plumlee, M.P. 1960. Simple, wet oxidation procedure for biological materials. Analytical Chemistry 32, 1728-1728.

Ritonga, T.P.TB., Affandi, R., Hariyadi, S. 2014. Response of eel seed (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) to degree of acidity (pH). Bogor: Bogor Agricultural University.25p.

Rodriguez, A., Gisbert, E., Rodriguez, G., Castello-Orvay, F. 2005. Histopathological observations in European glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) reared under different diets and salinities. Aquaculture 244, 203-214.

Sampaio, F.D., Freire, C.A. 2016. An overview of stress physiology of fish transport: changes in water quality as a function of transport duration. Fish and Fisheries 17,1055-1072.

Schmidt, C., Kunzmann, A. 2005. Post-harvest mortality in the marine aquarium trade: a case study of an Indonesian export facility. SPC Live Reef Fish Information Bulletin 13, 3-12.

Shrivastava, J., Sinha, A.K., Cannaerts, S., Blust, R., De Boeck, G. 2017. Temporal assessment of metabolic rate, ammonia dynamics and ion-status in common carp during fasting: A promising approach for optimizing fasting episode prior to fish transportation. Aquaculture 481, 218-228.

Singh, R.K., Vartak, V.R., Balange, A.K., Ghughuskar, M.M. 2004. Water quality management during transportation of fry of Indian major carps, Catlacatla (Hamilton), Labeo rohita (Hamilton) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Hamilton). Aquaculture 235:297-302.

Steel, R.G.D., Torrie, J.H. 1991. Principles and procedures of statistics. London (UK): McGraw-Hill, Book Company, INC. 487 p.

Stewart, H.A., Noakes, D.L., Cogliati, K.M., Peterson, J.T., Iversen, M.H., Schreck, C. B. 2016. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology 192, 38-43.

Taqwa, F.H., Supriyono, E., Budiardi, T., Utomo, N.B.P., Affandi, R. 2018. Optimization of physiological status of glass eel (Anguilla bicolor bicolor) for transport by salinity and temperature acclimatization. AACL Bioflux 11, 856-867.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à