Engineering Technology of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Intensive System Culture with the Suplementation of Phytase Enzyme in the Diet

Diana Rachmawati, Istiyanto Samidjan


This study aims to examine the effect of phytase enzyme in the diet on digestibility of growth of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised in intensive system culture. Research on the suplementation of phytase enzymes in L. vannamei diet is very important to hydrolyze phytic acid in vegetable ingredients as a source of diet protein so as to increase the efficiency of diet utilization to support growth of vaname shrimp. The shrimp used in the research had average weight of 1,19±0,06 g/shrimp.  The diet contained 38% of protein and 3200 Kcal DE/kg with various doses of phytase enzyme suplementation, namely: A (0 U/kg diet), B (500 U/kg diet), C (1000 U/kg diet) and D (1500 U/kg diet).  Observed parameters were digestibility of phosphore (ADCF), disgetibility of protein (ADCP), efficiency of diet utilitzation (EFU), protein efficiency ratio (PER), diet convesion ratio (FCR) relative growth rate (RGR), and survival rate (SR).  The suplementation of phytase enzyme in the diet significantly influenced (P<0.01) on ADCF, ADCP, EFU, PER, FCR, RGR; however, it did not significantly influence on SR of white shrimp.  The best treatment result was the suplementation of 1000 U/kg diet phytase enzyme (treatment C). The optimum dose of phytase enzyme in the diet was 867, 920, 923, 915, 1000 and 1000 U/kg of diet respectively for ADCF, ADCP, EFU, PER, FCR, RGR. Based on those result the suplementation of phytase enzyme can increase the growth of white shrimp.

Full Text:



Amoah, Y. T., H. Thorarensen., O. Sigurgeirrson. 2011. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth and protein utilization In Juvenile Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus). Fisheries Training Programme, United Nations University, 26 pp.

AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Fifteenth edition, Washington D.C. 1298 pp.

APHA. 2005. Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 21st Edn. Washington DC, USA.

Baruah, K., N. P. Sahu, A. K. Pal, D. Debnath., S. C. Mukherjee. 2007. Dietary Microbial Phytase and Citric Acid Synergistically Enhances Nutrient Digestibility and Growth Performance of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Juveniles At Sub-Optimal Protein Level. Aquaculture Research, 38(2):109-120.

Bulbul, M., Md. A. Kader, M. A. Ambak, Md. S. Hossain, M. Ishikawa., S. Koshio. 2015. Effects of Crystalline Amino Acids, Phytase and fish soluble supplements in improving nutritive values of high plant protein based diets for Kuruma Shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. Aquaculture Elsevier, 438:98-104.

Cao, L., W. Wang, C. Yang,Y. Yang, J. Diana, A. Yakupitiyage, Z. Luo., D. Li. 2007. Application of microbial phytase in fish diet. Enzym and Microbial Technology, 40:497-507.

Chung, T.K. 2001. Sustaining livestock production and environment. Food and Agriculture Asia Pacific Development. Singapore. Pp: 52-54.

Carter, C. G., Sajjadi M. 2011. Low fishmeal diets for Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L using soy protein concentrate treated with graded levels of phytase. Aquacult Int 19:431-444.

Danwitz, A. Von, C. G. J. van Bussel, S. F. Klatt., C. Schulz. 2016. Dietary Phytase Supplementation in Rapeseed Protein based Diets Influences Growth Performance, Digestibility and Nutrient Utilisation in Turbot (Psetta maxima L.). Aquaculture, 450:405-411.

Debnath D., Pal A.K., Sahu N.P. 2005. Effect of dietary microbial phytase supplementation on growth and nutrient digestibility of Pangasius pangasius (Hamilton) fingerlings. Aquacult Res, 36(2):180–7.

De Silva, S.S. 1987. Finfish nutrition research in Asia. Proceeding of The Second Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting. Heinemann. Singapore. 128 p.

Fenucci, J.L. 1981. Studies on the nutrition of marine shrimp of the Penaeus. Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Department of Biology, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Haghbayan, S., M. S. Mehrgan. 2015. The Effect of replacing fish meal in the diet with enzyme-treated soybean meal (HP310) on growth and body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry. Journal of Molecules. Department of Fisheries Science, Science and Study Branch, Islamic Azad University, 20:258-266.

Hassan, S., K. Altaff., T. Satyanarayana. 2009. Use of Soybean Supplemented with Cell Bound Phytase for Replacement of Fish Meal in the Diet of Juvenile Milkfish, Chanos chanos. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(4):341-344.

Husain, S.M., T. Hameed, M. Afzal, M.S. Mubarik, M. Asrar, S.Z.H. Shah, S. Ahmad, M.Z.H. Arzalan, D. Riaz, N. Tahir, F. Amber, M.M. Shahzad., Tanwir Ahmad Abbas Khichi. 2014. Effects of phytase supplementation on mineral digestibility in Cirrhinus mrigala fingerlings fed on sunflower meal-based diets. International Journal of Biosciences, 5 ( 12) : 173-181.

Jagannathan, K.R., P.H. Nielsen. 2013. Environmental Assessment of Enzyme Use in Industrial Production - A Literature Review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 42 : 228-240.

Kumar, V., A. K. Sinha, H. P. S. Makkar, G. De Boeck., K. Becker. 2011. Phytate and Phytase in Fish Nutrition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 96 (2012) :335-364.

[NRC] National Research Council. 1993. Nutrient requirement of fish. Washington DC, USA: National Academy Press. Pp 39-53.

Office of Fishery and Maritime District of Kendal, Kendal in number 2017 (Ministry of Marine and Fisheries Central Java, Indonesia, 2018).

Phromkunthong, W., N. Nuntapong., J. Gabaudan. 2010. Interaction of Phytase RONOZYME®P(L) and Citric Acid on The Utilization of Phosphorus by Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol, 32 (6): 547-554.

Rachmawati, D., Istiyanto, Samidjan. 2016. Effect of Phytase Enzyme on Growth Boost in the Artificial Feed Made of Plant Protein to Shorten Production Time of Giant Tiger Prawn [Penaeus monodon, (Fabricus 1798)]. Aquatic Procedia, 7: 46 – 53.

Rachmawati, D,. Istiyanto, S., Maizirwan Mel. 2017. Effect of Phytase on Growth Performance, Diet UtilizationEfficiency and Nutrient Digestibility in Fingerlings of Chanos chanos (Forsskal 1775). J. Philippine Journal of Science, 146 (3) : 237-245.

Rachmawati, D., Istitanto Samidjan. 2018. Effect of Phytase Enzyme on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Survival Rate of Catfish (Pangasius hypothalamus) Fingerlings. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 41 (2): 865 – 878.

Ravindran V, Bryden W.L., Kornegay ET. 2005. Phytates: occurrence, bioavailability, and implications in poultry nutrition. Poult Avian Biol Rev, 6:125–43.

Qinghui, Ai., Xiaojun Xie. 2005. Effects of Dietary Soybean Protein Levels on Energy Budget of The Southern Catfish, Silurus Meridionalis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 14: 461-469.

Shapawi, R., Wing-Keong Ng., Saleem Mustafa. 2007. Replacement of fish meal with poultry by-product meal in diets formulated for the humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis. Aquaculture 1 : 118-126.

Soundarapandian, P., Ramanan V., Dinakaran G.K. 2010. Effect of probiotics on the growth and survival of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) Current Research. Journal of Social Sciences, (2): 51-57.

Sugiura SH, Raboy V, Young KA, Dong FM, Hardy RW. 2001. Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture,170:285–96.

Suprayudi, M.A., Dini Harianto., Dedi Jusadi. 2012. Digestibility of Feed and Growth of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei given Feed Containing Different Phytase Enzymes. Journal of Indonesian Aquaculture. 11(2(:103-108.

Steel R.G.D, Torrie J.H, Dickey DA. 1993. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, 3rd Ed. McGraw Hill International Book Company, Inc. New York. USA, 336-352 p.

Storebakken T, Shearer K.D., Roem A.J. 1998. Availability of protein, phosphorus and other elements in fish meal, soy-protein concentrate and phytase treated soy-protein-concentrate-based diets to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar. J. Aquact, 161: 365-379.

Tahoun, A. M., Abo-State, H. A., Hamouda, Y. A. 2009. Effect of Adding Commercial Phytase to DDGS Based Diets on The Performance and Diet Utilization of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fingerlings. Agriculture and Environment Science, 5(4):550-555.

Tacon, A.G. 1987. The Nutrition and Dieting of Farmed Fish and Shrimp-A Traning Mannual. FAO of The United Nations. Brazil. p. 106-109.

Tawwab, M A. 2012. Effect of Dietary Protein Levels and Rearing Density on Growth Performance and Stress Response of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). International Aquatic Research, 4(3):1-

Vielma J, Ruohonen K, Gabaudan J., Vogel K. 2004. Top-spraying soybean mealbased diets with phytase improves protein and mineral digestibility but not lysine utilization in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquacult Res, 35(10):955–64.

Wang, F., Y.H. Yang, Z.Z. Han, H.W. Dong, C.H. Yang., Z.Y. Zou, 2009. Effects of phytase pretreatment of soybean meal and phytasesprayed in diets on growth, apparent digestibility coefficient and nutrient excretion of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum). Aqua. Int, 17: 143–157.

Wilson, R.P. 1982. Energy relationships in Catfish diets. In: R.R. Stickney and R.T. Lovell (Eds.). Nutrition and Dieting of Channel Catfish. Southern Cooperative Series. 193-201 p.

Yakuputiyage, A. 2013. On-Farm Dieting and Diet Management Strategies in Tropical Aquaculture. In M.R. Hasan and M.B. New, eds. On-Farm Dieting and Diet Management in Aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 583. Rome, FAO. p.361-376.

Yoo, G.Y., X. Wang, S. Choi, K. Han, J.C. Kang., S.C. Bai. 2005. Dietary microbial phytase increased the phosphorus digestibily in juvenile Korean rockfish Sebates schlegeli fed diets containing soybean meal. Aquacul, 243: 315-322.

Yu, F.N., Wang D.Z. 2000. The effects of supplemental phytase on growth and the utilization of hosphorus by crucian carp Carassius carassius. J. Fish SciChin,7(2):106–109.



Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Lisensi Creative Commons
Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à