Numerical Simulation of Ocean Wave Using High-Order Spectral Modeling Techniques: Its Influence on Transport Sediment in Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia

Ulung Jantama Wisha, Try Al Tanto, Widodo Pranowo, Semeidi Husrin, Gunardi Kusumah, agus Maryono

Abstract


Benoa Bay is threatened by sedimentation issue within the bay. It impairs the water mass circulation, influencing scour, mixing, and turbulence as well as sediment transport processes. This study focuses on the wave characteristic and its relation to sediment transport within Benoa Bay. Spectral wave modeling techniques were employed. The equation was discretized based on the condition of winds, tidal, and currents. Total sediment transported was calculated according to the wave model result. Total suspended sediment (TSS) model was simulated which the simulation considers bed load and suspended load transport. Significant wave height (Hs) ranged 0-0.48 m and 0-0.44 m during high tidal condition and low tidal condition respectively. Wave undulation propagates toward the West and Northwest within Bay. The wave period (Ts) ranged 2-6.5 second. Total sediment transport ranged 2828.16 - 86235.66 m3/year. TSS concentration ranged 1-100 mg/L and 1-155 mg/L during high tidal condition and low tidal condition respectively. Those conditions indicate that the sedimentation has been extremely occurred within the bay. The areas around Benoa peninsula, Benoa harbor, and Serangan Island are heavily polluted by suspended sediment. Bottom sediment is stirred by hydraulic jump off wave propagation. The first wave crest induces scour, which its train carries the stirred sediment entering the bay. If ongoing, this condition will exacerbate the existing ecosystem. Benoa Bay development has a big role evoking the level of TSS and turbidity. The more the sedimentation occurs, the more the ecological problem takes place.

Full Text:

20-35

References


Al Tanto, T., U. J. Wisha, G. Kusumah, W. S. Pranowo, S. Husrin, I. Ilham, & A. Putra. 2017. Sea Current Characteristics of Benoa Bay - Bali. Jurnal Ilmiah Geomatika, 23(1), 37-48.

Bach, H. K., Rasmussen, E. K., & Foster, T. 1998. Eutrophication modelling of a tidally influenced mangrove area in Bali subject to major dredging and reclamation activities. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 25, 251-261.

Braden, G. E. 2015. Turbulence, diffusion and sedimentation in stream channel expansions and contractions. In Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science (Vol. 31, pp. 73-77) February 2015.

Bunya, S., J. C. Dietrich, J. J. Westerink, B. A. Ebersole, J. M. Smith, J. H. Atkinson, R. Jensen, D.T. Resio, R.A. Luettich, C. Dawson, V.J. Cardone, A.T. Cox, M.D. Powell, H.J. Westerink, and H.J. Roberts. 2010. A high-resolution coupled riverine flow, tide, wind, wind wave, and storm surge model for southern Louisiana and Mississippi. Part I: Model development and validation. Monthly weather review, 138(2), 345-377. https://doi.org/10.1175/2009mwr2906.1.

CERC, U. A. 1984. Shore protection manual. US Army Corps of Engineers, Washington.

Chao, W., Chao, S., Wang, P. F., Jin, Q., Jun, H., & LIU, J. J. 2013. Modeling of sediment and heavy metal transport in Taihu Lake, China. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B, 25(3), 379-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-6058(11)60376-5.

Chen, Z., C. Hu, F. E. Muller-Karger, and M. E. Luther. 2010. Short-term variability of suspended sediment and phytoplankton in Tampa Bay, Florida: observations from a coastal oceanographic tower and ocean color satellites. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 89(1), 62-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2010.05.014.

Crespo, A. J. C. 2008. Application of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics model SPHysics to free surface hydrodynamics. (PhD Thesis). Universidade de Vigo. Departement of Applied Physic. Manchester. United Kingdom.

Cummins, S. J., T. B. Silvester, and P. W. Cleary. 2012. Three‐dimensional wave impact on a rigid structure using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 68(12), 1471-1496. https://doi.org/10.1002/fld.2539.

Dharma, I. G. B. S., and W. Candrayana. 2017. Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport of Benoa Bay, Semi-Enclosed Bay in Bali, Indonesia. In Applied Mechanics and Materials (Vol. 862, pp. 3-8). Trans Tech Publications. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/amm.862.3.

DHI. 2013. MIKE 21 & MIKE 3 Flow Model FM Hydrodynamic Module - Short Description. DHI Headquarters Agem Alle 5. DK-2970 Horsholm. Denmark.

Docherty, N. J., Chanson, H. 2010. Characterization of Unsteady Turbulence in Breaking Tidal Bores Including the Effects of Bed Roughness. Hydraulic Model Reports. School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland, Report CH76/10. 100 pp. https://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)ww.1943-5460.0000048.

Driscoll, A.M., T. Foster, C. Pedersen, P. Mikkelsen, Y. Tateishi. 1998. Integrated Optimization for A Tropical Land Reclamation: Bali Turtle Island Development. Coastal Engineering. 3374-3387. https://doi.org/10.1061/9780784404119.256.

Gao, J. X. Lan, Y. Fan, J. Chang, G. Wang, C. Lu, and C. Xu. 2009. CFD modeling and validation of the turbulent fluidized bed of FCC particles. AIChE Journal, 55(7), 1680-1694. Doi: 10.1002/aic.11824.

Garrett, C., and E. Kunze. 2007. Internal tide generation in the deep ocean. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 39, 57-87. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fluid.39.050905.110227.

Hendrawan, I. G. 2005. Barotropic Model to Calculate Water Circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali (Doctoral dissertation. (Thesis). Master Program of Environmental Study, Udayana University, Denpasar, Bali.

Hendrawan, I. G., and I. K. Ardana. 2010. Numerical calculation of phosphate transport in Benoa Bay, Bali. International Journal of Remote Sensing and Earth Sciences (IJReSES), 6(1). https://doi.org/10.30536/j.ijreses.2009.v6.a1237.

Hendrawan, I. G., and K. Asai. 2014. Numerical study on tidal currents and seawater exchange in the Benoa Bay, Bali, Indonesia. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 33(3), 90-100. 33(3):90-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13131-014-0434-5.

Hendrawan, I. G., D. Uniluha, and I. P. R. F. Maharta. 2016. Characteristics of Total Suspended solids (Total Suspended Solid) and turbidity (Turbidity) operates vertically in Gulf waters Benoa, Bali. Journal of marine and Aquatic Science. 2:29-33.

Jose, F., D. Kobashi, G.W. Stone. 2007. Spectral Wave Transformation Over an Elongated Sand Shoal off South-Central Lousiana, USA. J. Coast. Res. S1 50 (Proceeding of the 9th International Coastal Symposium). 757-761. Gold Coast. Australia.

Jun-zheng, Z. H. U., and Y. U. Pu-bing. 2009. Numerical method for the storm tide overflow model in Hangzhou bay and Qiantangjiang estuary. Journal Advances in Water Science, 2, 018.

Kartadikaria, A. R., Y. Miyazawa, S. M. Varlamov, and K. Nadaoka. 2011. Ocean circulation for the Indonesian seas driven by tides and atmospheric forcings: Comparison to observational data. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, 116(C9), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011jc007196.

Kinsman, B. 1965. Wind waves: their generation and propagation on the ocean surface. Courier Corporation.

Lazure, P., V. Garnier, F. Dumas, C. Herry, and M. Chifflet. 2009. Development of a hydrodynamic model of the Bay of Biscay. Validation of hydrology. Continental Shelf Research, 29(8), 985-997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.12.017.

Meylan, M. H., Bennetts, L. G., & Kohout, A. L. 2014. In situ measurements and analysis of ocean waves in the Antarctic marginal ice zone. Geophysical Research Letters, 41(14), 5046-5051. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014GL060809.

Ningsih, N. S., & Al Azhar, M. 2013. Modelling of hydrodynamic circulation in Benoa Bay, Bali. Journal of marine science and technology, 18(2), 203-212. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00773-012-0195-9.

Ondara, K., & Wisha, U. J. 2016. Numerical Simulation of Spectral Waves and Rob Disaster Using Flexible Mesh and Data Elevation Model in Waters of Sayung District, Demak. Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 9(2), 164-174. https://doi.org/10.21107/jk.v9i2.1694.

Qi, W. G., & Gao, F. P. 2014. Physical modeling of local scour development around a large-diameter monopile in combined waves and current. Coastal Engineering, 83, 72-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2013.10.007.

Rachman, H. A., I. G. Hendrawan, and I. D. N. N. Putra. 2016. Study of Sediment Transport in Benoa Bay Using Numerical Model. Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 9(2), 144-154. https://doi.org/10.21107/jk.v9i2.1617.

Ricchiuto, M., & Filippini, A. G. 2014. Upwind residual discretization of enhanced Boussinesq equations for wave propagation over complex bathymetries. Journal of Computational Physics, 271, 306-341. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2013.12.048.

Sato, S., & Liu, H. 2013. A sheetflow sediment transport model for skewed-asymmetric waves combined with strong opposite currents. Coastal Engineering, 71, 87-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2012.08.004.

Spaulding, M. L., & Mendelsohn, D. L. 1999. WQMAP: An integrated three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model system for estuarine and coastal applications. Marine Technology Society Journal, 33(3), 38-54. https://doi.org/10.4031/mtsj.33.3.6.

Triatmodjo, B. 2012. Coastal Building Planning. Beta Offset. Yogyakarta. Indonesia.

Warner, J. C., B. Armstrong, R. He, and J.B. Zambon. 2010. Development of a coupled ocean–atmosphere–wave–sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system. Ocean Modelling, 35(3), 230-244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ocemod.2010.07.010.

Wisha, U. J., M. Yusuf, and L. Maslukah. 2016. Abundance of Phytoplankton and TSS Value as an Indicator for Porong River Estuary Water Conditions. Indonesian Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 9(2), 122-129. https://doi.org/10.21107/jk.v9i2.1298.

Wisha, U. J., T. Al Tanto, W. S. Pranowo, and S. Husrin. 2017. Current Movement in Benoa Bay Water, Bali, Indonesia: Pattern of Tidal Current Changes Simulated for the Condition before, during, and after Reclamation. Regional Studies in Marine Science, 18, 177-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsma.2017.10.006.

Zijlema, M., G. P. Van Vledder, and L. H. Holthuijsen. 2012. Bottom friction and wind drag for wave models. Coastal Engineering, 65, 19-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coastaleng.2012.03.002.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20884/1.oa.2019.15.2.554

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

 

Lisensi Creative Commons

Omni-Akuatika de Fisheries and Marine Science Faculty - Jenderal Soedirman University est mis à disposition selon les termes de la licence Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International.

Fondé(e) sur une œuvre à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.
Les autorisations au-delà du champ de cette licence peuvent être obtenues à www.ojs.omniakuatika.net.